JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
January 2018
U-T15 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #ML24078):  3-year old Hampshire ewe

HISTORY:  This ewe was found dead, along with several others, on a pasture in South Dakota in June.  Depression and emesis as well as photosensitization were noted in surviving sheep.  Clinical pathology results were:

            BUN               366 mg/dl       (10-20 mg/dl)

            SGOT             260 SF           (0-150 IU/ml)

            CPK                170 IU/l          (<200 IU/l)

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney, cortex:  Multifocally, up to 70% of tubules are ectatic, dilated up to 100 um in diameter, lined by attenuated epithelium, and contain variable amounts of proteinaceous material, few sloughed epithelial cells, eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis), and, rarely, basophilic, anisotropic crystals (oxalate).  Few tubules are lined by epithelial cells that are swollen with pale vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration) or shrunken with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei (necrosis).  Few glomeruli have hypertrophic parietal epithelium, and mild thickening of the basement membrane of Bowman’s capsule.  There are multifocal aggregates of low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells scattered throughout the interstitium.

Liver:  Diffusely, centrilobular hepatocytes are swollen and rounded with pale vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration), which compress and distort sinusoids.  Multifocally there is individual cell necrosis.  Within the portal areas there are low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS

  1. Kidney, cortex: Ectasia, tubular, multifocal, moderate, with tubular degeneration and necrosis, Hampshire, ovine
  2. Liver, hepatocytes: Degeneration and necrosis, centrilobular, mild-moderate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Algal hepatic and renal toxicosis

CAUSE:  Blue-green algae toxin of Anabaena sp.

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Hepatotoxins:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Cherry C, Buttke D, Wong D, Wild MA. Freshwater harmful algal blooms and cyanotoxin poisoning in domestic dogs. 2015;247(9):1004-1005.
  2. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and biliary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed., Vol. 2. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Limited;2016:330.
  3. Guzman RE, Solter PF. Characterization of sublethal microcystin-LR exposure in mice. Vet Pathol 2002;39:17-26.
  4. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology. 6th ed., Baltimore, MD:Williams and Wilkins;1997:75-76,723-724.
  5. Khan SA, Wickstrom ML, Haschek WM, Schaeffer DJ, Ghosh S, Beasley VR. Microcystin-LR and kinetics of cytoskeletal reorganization in hepatocytes, kidney cells, and fibroblasts. Nat Toxins 1996;4:206-14.
  6. Milutinovic A, Zivin M, Zorc-Pleskovic R, Sedmak B, Suput D.font color=navy> Nephrotoxic effects of chronic administration of microcystins -LR and -YR. Toxicon 2003;42:281-288.
  7. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD. Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats. 11th ed. St. Louis, MO; Elsevier Limited; 2017:101-103.
  8. Simola O, Wiberg M, Jokela J, et al. Pathologic Findings and Toxin Identification in Cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) Intoxication in a Dog. Vet Pathol. 2012; 46(5):755-9..

 

 


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