JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

October 2017

P-V12

 

Signalment (JPC #90-52055):  Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

HISTORY:  This 1-year-old male rhesus monkey was injected with SIV/δ.  Nine weeks post-inoculation, fulminant disease developed with respiratory distress, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss, elevated BUN and LDH, anemia and thrombocytopenia.  The animal was euthanized eight days after these symptoms appeared.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung: There are multifocal to coalescing areas of consolidation throughout the lung section.  Approximately 40% of the alveolar septa are thickened up to three times normal by moderate numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fewer neutrophils, fibrin, and edema.  There is necrosis and loss of type I pneumocytes, and affected alveolar septa are lined by cuboidal cells (type II pneumocyte hyperplasia) or pneumocytes are enlarged up to two times normal (cytomegaly), with an enlarged nuclei, up to 20 um (karyomegaly) which often contain 5-15 um eosinophilic, ovoid intranuclear viral inclusion bodies.  Multifocally alveolar lumina contain variable numbers of necrotic pneumocytes, foamy alveolar macrophages which often contain viral inclusion bodies, occasional multinucleate cells with up to 10 nuclei (syncytia), lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mild hemorrhage and fibrin.  Occasionally, lining bronchi and bronchioles are mildly hyperplastic epithelial cells.  Multifocally bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is hyperplastic.  Diffusely, perivascular, peribronchial, peribronchiolar, interlobular and pleural connective tissues are expanded up to eight times normal by edema admixed with moderate numbers of macrophages, fewer lymphocytes, plasma cells, and rare neutrophils.  Rarely the pleura is lined by plump mesothelial cells (reactive).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Pneumonia, interstitial, lymphohistiocytic, multifocal, moderate, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, syncytial giant cells, epithelial karyomegaly and cytomegaly and eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, primate

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Herpesviral pneumonia; Lentiviral pneumonia

CAUSE:  Macacine herpesvirus-3 and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

SYNONYMS: Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV); Simian cytomegalovirus; Cercopithicine herpesvirus 8 (former name)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Key cytomegaloviruses in animal species:

REFERENCES: 

  1. Assaf BT, Knight HL, Miller AD. Rhesus cytomegalovirus (Macacine herpesvirus 3)-associated facial neuritis in Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(1): 217-223.
  2. Barthold SW, et al. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th Ames, IA: Iowa State Press; 2016:219,175,15-16,122
  3. Calle PP, Joslin JO. New world and old world monkeys. In: Miller RE, Fowler ME, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Vol 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 331
  4. Caswell JL, et al. The respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, Vol 2, 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 529
  5. Cheville NF. Ultrastructural Pathology: The Comparative Cellular Basis of Disease. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing; 2009:335.
  6. Cummings Macri S, Knight HL, Miller AD. Mesenchymoproliferative enteropathy associated with dual simian polyomavirus and rhesus cytomegalovirus infection in a simian immunodeficiency virus–infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Vet Pathol. 2013;50(4):715-721.
  7. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ eds. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 5th ed. London, UK; 2017:190, 208.
  8. Murphy HW. Great apes. In: Miller RE, Fowler ME, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Vol 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 339, 344, 353.
  9. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, Vol 2, 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 433,435.
  10. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases, Vol 2. London, UK: Academic Press; 2012:19-20,19-20,739
  11. Wiedner E. Proboscidea. In: Miller RE, Fowler ME, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Vol 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 524, 526.
  12. Zachariah A, Zong JC, Long SY, et al. Fatal herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease in wild and orphan asian elephants in southern India. J Wildl Dis. 2013; 49(2):381-393

 


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