JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

September 2017

P-P04 (NP)

 

Signalment (JPC #1847808):  Black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demerus)

HISTORY:  Died suddenly

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Lung: There is an overall thickening of the pulmonary interstitium. Diffusely, air capillary and vascular capillary walls are moderately thickened by macrophages, fewer heterophils and lymphocytes, rare plasma cells, and small amounts of edema and cellular debris.  Multifocally macrophages and erythrocytes contain intracytoplasmic parasitic schizonts measuring up to 10 um in diameter; schizonts contain up to twenty 1-2 um diameter, round, basophilic merozoites.  Other macrophages occasionally contain intracytoplasmic granular to spicular, brown to black, variably birefringent pigment (hemozoin).  Diffusely, septa and perivascular areas are expanded with edema.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Lung:  Pneumonia, interstitial, histiocytic, diffuse, moderate, with intrahistiocytic and intraerythrocytic schizonts, and intrahistiocytic hemozoin, etiology consistent with Plasmodium spp., penguin (Spheniscus demerus), avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Plasmodial pneumonia

CAUSE:  Plasmodium sp. (phylum Apicomplexa)

CONDITION:  Avian malaria

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Avian Plasmodium species may be differentiated by the number of merozoites formed in the exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, timing of the life cycle, and morphology of the gametocytes

Other intracellular parasites in Avian blood smears

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

  1. Atkinson CT, Dusek RJ, Woods KL, Iko WM. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi. J Wildl Dis. 2000; 36:197-204.
  2. Bermudez AJ. Miscellaneous and sporadic protozoal infections. In: Calnek BW, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press; 2013:1188-1189.
  3. Campbell, Terry W. Hematology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc; 1994:190-191.
  4. Dinhopl N, Mostegl M, Richter B, et al. Application of in-situ hybridization for the detection and identification of avian malaria parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissues from captive penguins. Avian Pathology. 2011; 40(3):315-320.
  5. Gardiner CH, Fayer R, Dubey JP. An Atlas of Protozoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998:65-66.
  6. Greiner EC, Ritchie BW. Parasites. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc; 1994:1019-1021.
  7. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1996: 590-593.
  8. Macwhirter P. Passeriformes. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc; 1994:1192-1193.
  9. Tahseen AA, Fletcher OJ, Barnes HJ. Avian Histopathology. 4th American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc; 2016:516.
  10. Thurber MI, Gamble KC, Krebs B, Goldberg TL. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec;45(4):749-54.
  11. Vanstreels RE, Capellino F, Silveira P, Braga ÉM, Rodríguez-Heredia SA, Loureiro J, Catão-Dias JL. Avian Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010. J Wildl Dis. 2016 Jul;52(3):734-7.

 

 

 


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