JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENT SYSTEM

November 2016

I-V13

 

Signalment (JPC #2061960):  Broiler chicken, age and breed unspecified

HISTORY:  Tissue taken at slaughter

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:  Feathered skin:  Multifocally within the dermis and subcutis, surrounding follicles and vessels, extending into the adjacent tissue, and replacing fibroadipose tissue and dermal myocytes are low to moderate numbers of variably sized lymphocytes and few scattered macrophages.  The variably sized lymphocytes range in appearance from small mature lymphocytes with scant to indiscernible amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and small round hyperchromatic nuclei to large lymphocytes with small amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and large irregularly round nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and variably distinct nucleoli.  Dermal and subcuticular vessels are occasionally lined by hypertrophic endothelial cells.  Multifocally, dermal collagen is separated by a small to moderate amount of clear space (edema), and diffusely, feather follicles are devoid of feathers and follicular epithelium is disrupted or absent (scalding artifact).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Feathered skin:  Lymphoid proliferation, perifollicular, multifocal, moderate, chicken, avian.

ETIOLOGY:  Gallid herpesvirus-2 [Marek's disease virus (MDV), serotype 1]

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Herpesviral perifolliculitis

CONDITION:  Marek's disease, skin leukosis 

GENERAL:

PATHOGENESIS:

 TYPICAL CLINICAL AND GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

 ULTRASTRUCTURE:

 ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

Other causes of lymphoproliferative disease in chickens:

 

FEATURES

 

LYMPHOID LEUKOSIS

 

MAREK'S DISEASE

 

Etiology

 

Type C  Retrovirus

 

Alphaherpesvirus

 

Age

 

> 16 weeks

 

> 4 weeks (usually 2-5 months)

 

Paralysis

 

Absent

 

Present

 

Bursa of Fabricius

 

Nodular tumor

 

Diffuse enlargement, or  atrophy (or no lesions)

 

Skin or Muscle Involvement

 

Absent

 

May be present

 

Peripheral Nerve Infiltration

 

Absent

 

Present

 

Bursal Proliferation

 

Intrafollicular

 

Interfollicular

 

Lymphoid Cells

 

Uniform blasts

 

Pleomorphic

 

Tumor Cell Type

 

Predominantly B-cells

 

Predominantly T-cells

 

Tumor Cell

 

> 90% IgM+

 

< 5% IgM+

 

MATSA (on tumor cells)

 

Absent

 

Present (5-40%)

Note:  MATSA (Marek's disease tumor-associated surface antigen) was once thought to be tumor specific but is now considered to be a host antigen (present on activated T-cells)

Other chicken skin tumors:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Oncogenic Viruses:

 

SPECIES

NEOPLASM

DNA Viruses

 

 

Adenoviridae

 

 

Various Strains

Hamster

Experimental Sarcomas

Hepadnaviridae

 

 

Hepatitis B Virus

(Orthohepadnavirus)

Human

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus

(Orthohepadnavirus)

Woodchuck

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Duck Hepatitis Virus

(Avihepadnavirus)

Duck

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Herpesviridae

 

 

Marek's Disease Virus

(Alphaherpesvirus)

Chicken

Lymphoma

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

(Gammaherpesvirus)

Human

Burkitt's Lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Herpes saimiri & H. ateles

(Gammaherpesvirus)

Nonhuman Primates

Lymphoma

Herpes sylvilagus

(Gammaherpesvirus)

Rabbit

Lymphoma

Ranid Herpesvirus

(Unclassified)

Leopard Frog

Renal Adenocarcinoma

Papovaviridae

 

 

Polyomaviruses

Mouse & Hamster

Experimental Carcinomas and Sarcomas; trichoepithelioma (hamster)

Simian Virus 40 (SV40)

Rodents

Experimental Sarcomas

Papillomaviruses

Many Species (including humans)

Papillomas, Carcinomas

Poxviridae

 

 

Yaba Virus (Yatapoxvirus)

Rhesus Macaque

Histiocytoma

Shope Fibroma Virus (Leporipoxvirus)

Rabbit

Fibroma, Myxoma

RNA Viruses

 

 

Flaviviridae

 

 

Hepatitis C Virus

Human

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Retroviridae

 

 

Type B

 

 

Mammary Tumor Virus

Mouse

Mammary Adenocarcinoma

Mammalian Type C

 

 

Murine Leukemia & Sarcoma Viruses

Mouse

Leukemia, Lymphoma, & Sarcoma

Feline Leukemia & Sarcoma Viruses

Cat

Leukemia, Lymphoma, & Sarcoma

Avian Type C

 

 

Avian Leukosis Virus

Chicken

Lymphoma

Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

Chicken

Lymphoma

Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus (LPDV)

Turkey

Lymphoma

Type D

 

 

Jaagsiekte Retrovirus (JSRV)

Sheep

Pulmonary Carcinoma

Ovine and Caprine Nasal Adenocarcinoma Retrovirus

Sheep and Goats

Nasal Adenocarcinoma

Type E (?)

 

 

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV)

Cattle

Lymphoma and Leukemia

Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)

Human

T-Cell Leukemia and Lymphoma

Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus (STLV)

Nonhuman Primates

T-Cell Leukemia and Lymphoma

 

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Hamster. In: Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH, eds. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 2016:176-178.
  2. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Mouse. In: Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH, eds. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 2016:39-44.
  3. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Rabbit. In: Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH, eds. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 2016:262-264.
  4. Boulianne M, et al. Avian Disease Manual.  7th  Jacksonville, FL: AAAP;2013:30-34.
  5. Carvallo FR, French RA, Gilbert-Marcheterre K, et. al. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek’s disease virus infection. Vet Pathol. 2011;48(5):993-998.
  6. Cortes PL, Cardona CJ. Pathogenesis of a Marek's disease virus mutant lacking vIL-8 in resistant and susceptible chickens. Avian Dis. 2004;48(1):50-60.
  7. Cui X, Lee L, Hunt HD, et. al. A Marek’s disease virus vIL-8 deletion mutant has attenuated virulence and confers protection against challenge with a very virulent plus strain. Avian Dis. 2005;49(2):199-206.
  8. Gerlach H. Viruses. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, eds. Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc.; 1994:874-875, 885.
  9. Latimer KS. Oncology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, eds. Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc.; 1994:644-645, 653.
  10. Liu L, Qu Y, Wang T, Wang G, et al. Skin involvement in lymphomas caused by Marek’s disease virus infection in Silkie chickens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014; 26(2):302-307.
  11. Nair V. Latency and tumorigenesis in Marek’s disease. Avian Dis. 2013;57(2s1):360-365.
  12. Nair V, Jones RC, Gough RE: Herpesviridae. In: Pattison M, McMullin PF, Bradbury JM, et. al., eds. Poultry Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:258-267.
  13. Schat KA, Nair V. Marek’s disease. In: Swayne DE, et al, eds. Diseases of poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2013: 515-552.
  14. Watchman L, Mansfield, K. Viral diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, et al., eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:7-26.


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