JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
February 2018
U-V03

SIGNALMENT:  Tissue from a 12-day-old beagle

HISTORY:  This beagle died suddenly. 

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Affecting approximately 50% of the renal parenchyma are multiple foci of coagulative necrosis, with loss of differential staining, accumulation of eosinophilic cellular and karryorrhectic debris and retention of cellular architecture, admixed with hemorrhage, fibrin and edema, radiating through the cortex and into the medulla.  Multifocally, tubular epithelium is degenerate, with swollen, pale with vacuolated cytoplasm or necrotic, shrunken and hypereosinophilic with nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, or karyolysis and occasional sloughing into the tubular lumen.  Rarely, tubular epithelial cells contain a round to polygonal, 2-4 um diameter, intranuclear, eosinophilic viral inclusion body surrounded by a clear halo that peripheralize chromatin.  Multifocally, few glomeruli exhibit one or more of the following changes: segmental to global necrosis, with loss of cellular detail and presence of karyorrhectic debris (necrosis); hypertrophy of the parietal and visceral epithelium, and/or synechiae.  Multifocally, blood vessel walls are edematous with small amounts of necrotic cellular debris that extends into the surrounding interstitium and is admixed with  hemorrhage and fibrin (vascular necrosis).  There is multifocal interstitial and glomerular congestion.  Diffusely, the capsule is moderately expanded by edema and hemorrhage.

Liver:  Multifocally, there are random foci of coagulative necrosis with loss of differential staining with retention of cellular architecture rimmed by lytic necrosis with loss of normal hepatic cord architecture with replacement by and abundant cellular and karyorrhectic debris.  In areas of hepatocellular necrosis there are aggregates of hemosiderin laden macrophages and neutrophils.  Occasionally, adjacent to necrotic areas and within less affected hepatocytes are round to polygonal, 2-4 um, eosinophilic, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, which peripheralize the chromatin. Multifocally, blood vessel walls are expanded and surrounded by necrotic cellular debris with hemorrhage and fibrin (vascular necrosis). Periportal connective tissue is moderately expanded by edema, ectatic lymphatics, and few lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and neutrophils. 

Lung:  Alveolar septae are multifocally discontinuous or lost and replaced by necrotic cellular debris and fibrin (necrosis) or expanded up to 3 times normal by fibrin, necrotic debris, numerous foamy macrophages, and fewer neutrophils and erythrocytes.  Similar inflammatory cells, fibrin and edema multifocally fill alveoli.  Multifocally, bronchiolar epithelial cells are necrotic/sloughed and lumina contain low numbers of macrophages, neutrophils and sloughed epithelial cells.  Rarely, bronchiolar epithelial cells contain 2-4 um polygonal, eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies that peripheralize the chromatin. Multifocally, blood vessel walls are thickened and surrounded by small amounts of necrotic cellular debris with hemorrhage, fibrin and edema extending into the adjacent interstitium (vascular necrosis).   Multifocally, peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular connective tissue is moderately expanded by edema and ectatic lymphatics. There is multifocal alveolar emphysema.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  1. Kidney, tubules and glomeruli:  Nephritis, necrotizing, acute, multifocal, severe, with vascular necrosis, hemorrhage, edema, and rare epithelial intranuclear viral inclusions, beagle, canine.

  1. Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, random, acute, multifocal, moderate with hepatocellular intranuclear viral inclusion bodies.
  1. Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, acute, multifocal, moderate, with rare bronchiolar epithelial intranuclear inclusion bodies.   

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Herpesviral nephritis, hepatitis, and pneumonia

CAUSE: Canine herpesvirus type 1 (CaHV-1); canid alphaherpesvirus I

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: (diseases in young dogs which cause renal lesions)

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

(Alphaherpesviruses)

REFERENCES:

  1. Breshears MA, Confer AW. The urinary system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:677.
  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 577.
  3. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 432.
  4. Gadsden BJ, Maes RK, Wise AG, et al. Fatal Canid herpesvirus 1 infection in an adult dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24(4):604-607.
  5. Giaretta PR, Rissi DR. Pathology in practice. CHV-1 infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014; 245(6):639-641.
  6. Jager MC, Sloma EA, Shelton M, et al. Naturally acquired canine herpesvirus-associated meningoencephalitis. Vet Pathol. 2017; 54(5):820-827.
  7. Kapil S. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015; 27(6):758-761.
  8. Kumar S, Driskell EA, Cooley AJ, et al. Fatal canid herpesvirus 1 respiratory infections in 4 clinically healthy adult dogs. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(4):681-687.
  9. Lopez A, Martinson SA. Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:546.
  10. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ, eds. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 5th ed. London, UK; 2017:70, 202.
  11. Muro SM, Jugan MC, Ruoff C, et al. What is your diagnosis? Canine herpesvirus-1 infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015; 247(7):747-749.
  12. Pesavento PA, Murphy BG. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(2):478-491.
  13. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 431-433.
  14. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:

 


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