JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Musculoskeletal System
March 2019
M-M07

Signalment (JPC #2314370):  A young guinea pig

HISTORY:  This guinea pig was fed autoclaved commercial rabbit food for a period of 6 weeks prior to death.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Stifle joint (femur, tibia and patella):  The femoral and tibial physeal growth plate cartilage is diffusely irregular and thinned, characterized by shortening, loss and disorganization of chondrocyte columns with a poorly discernible zone of hypertrophy and thin resting zone. In the areas of the primary spongiosa there are numerous spicules of cartilage lined by decreased numbers of osteoblasts with no discernible osteoid production (scorbutic lattice) that extend into the metaphyses.  Multifocally there are coalescing microfractures of the scorbutic lattice often surrounded by hemorrhage and fibrin. Multifocally within the medullary cavity of both the femur and tibia there are reduced amounts of epiphyseal and metaphyseal trabecular bone, as well as thinning of both the cortical bone (osteopenia).  Multifocally within the tibial metaphyseal medullary cavity, hematopoietic elements are replaced by loosely arranged mesenchymal cells (myelofibrosis) and hemorrhage.  Hemorrhage frequently separates and elevates the periosteum from the cortex and extends into the adjacent periarticular connective tissue and skeletal muscle.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Tibia; femur:  Failure of endochondral ossification, with scorbutic lattice formation, osteopenia, microfractures and subperiosteal and periarticular hemorrhage, guinea pig (Cavia poricellus), rodent.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Scorbutic osteoarthropathy

CAUSE:  Hypovitaminosis C/Ascorbic acid deficiency

CONDITION:  Scurvy

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 239-241.
  2. Capo I, Hinic N, Lalosevic D, et al. Vitamin C depletion in prenatal guinea pigs as a model of lissencephaly type II. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(6):1263-1271.
  3. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:83-84.
  4. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Environmental and nutritional diseases. In: Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2015:442-443.
  5. Pritzker KPH, Kessler MJ.  Arthritis, Muscle, Adipose Tissue, and Bone Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2, 2nd San Diego, CA: Elsevier Inc; 2012:660-661.


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