JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
December 2018
D-V25

Signalment (JPC #1941253):  A 90-day-old chicken.

HISTORY:  This bird was from a flock of 21,000 layers that had experienced 8% mortality and a sudden drop in egg production.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Pancreas:  Affecting approximately 75% of the pancreas are multifocal to coalescing areas of pancreatic acinar architecture loss and stromal collapse with replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, fibrin, edema, and hemorrhage (lytic necrosis).  Multifocally, scattered acinar cells are shrunken and individualized with vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei (single cell necrosis).  In less affected areas, acinar cells are shrunken with loss of zymogen granules (atrophy).  Low to moderate numbers of lymphocytes, fewer heterophils, and macrophages are scattered throughout the parenchyma and interlobular connective tissue extending into the adjacent mesentery.  Areas of necrosis and inflammation also extend into the peripancreatic adipose tissue, where adipocytes at the periphery exhibit loss of cellular detail (fat necrosis) and replacement by fibrin, necrotic debris, basophilic finely granular mineral and acicular cholesterol clefts (fat saponification). Lymphatics are mildly ectatic (edema) with intraluminal protein and fibrin. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Pancreas:  Pancreatitis, necrotizing, subacute, multifocal to coalescing, severe, with serositis and peripancreatic fat necrosis and saponification, chicken, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Orthomyxoviral pancreatitis and serositis

ETIOLOGY:  Avian orthomyxovirus

CONDITION:  Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

SYNONYMS:  Fowl plague

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Ajithdoss DK, Torchetti MK, Badcoe L, Bradway DS, Baszler TV. Pathologic findings and viral antigen distribution during natural infection of ring-necked pheasants with H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A.  Vet Pathol. 2017;54(2):312-315.
  2. Arruda PHE, Stevenson GW, Killian ML, et. al. Outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection in two commercial layer facilities: lesions and viral antigen distribution.  Jour Vet Diag Invest. 2016;28(5):568-573.
  3. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 220.
  4. Bernardino PN, Mapes SM, Corbin R, Pusterla N. Pyrosequencing as a fast and reliable tool to determine clade affiliation for equine influenza A virus.  Jour Vet Diag Invest. 2016;28(3):323-326.
  5. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG. ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:526-527, 567, 577, 587.
  6. Fitzpatrick A, Mor SK, Thurn M, et. al. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Minnesota in 2015: lessons learned.  Jour Vet Diag Invest. 2017;29(2):169-175.
  7. Janke BH. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.  Vet Pathol. 2014;51:410-426.
  8. Lopez A, Martinson SA. Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 540.
  9. Lowenstein LJ, Osborn KG. Respiratory System Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012: 446-447.
  10. Nuradji H, Bingham J, Payne J, et. al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in feathers: tropism and pathology of virus-infected feathers of infected ducks and chickens.  Vet Pathol. 2017;54(2):226-233.
  11. Ojkic D, Brash ML, Jackwood MW, Shivaprasad HL. Viral Diseases.  In: Boulianne M et al, eds. Avian Disease Manual. 7th, Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc.; 2013:21-25, 257.
  12. Taylor DR. The ferret in viral respiratory disease research.  In:  Fox JG, Marini RP.  Biology and Diseases of the Ferret.  3rd ed.  Ames, IA: Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014:630-634.
  13. Wang C, Zhang Y, Bing G, et. al. The use of pyrosequencing for detection of hemagglutinin mutations associated with increased pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mammals.  Jour Vet Diag Invest. 2018;30(4):619-622.
  14. Watson CE, Bell C, Toohey-Hurth K. H3N2 canine influenza virus infection in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2017; 54(3):527-530.
  15. Yamamoto Y, Nakamura K, Yamada M, Mase M. Corneal opacity in domestic ducks experimentally infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.  Vet Pathol. 2016;53(1):65-76.
  16. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF. ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:207-212.


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