JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
DECEMBER 2018
D-V28

Signalment (JPC# 2100581):  Yearling steer

HISTORY: This animal was inoculated intradermally with an infectious agent. The animal became very depressed, had bloody diarrhea, and was euthanized seven days post-inoculation.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Colon:  There is diffuse mucosal erosion with multifocal ulceration characterized by loss of superficial enterocytes with replacement by a mat of degenerate neutrophils, fibrin, hemorrhage, necrotic cellular debris and a mixed population of bacteria (pseudodiphtheritic membrane). Crypts are frequently lost or contain necrotic debris, separated by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils, are lined by epithelial cells which pile up to 3 layers thick and have vesiculate nuclei and increased mitotic figures (regeneration), or are ectatic lined by attenuated epithelium with abundant luminal necrotic debris, degenerate neutrophils and foamy macrophages (crypt abscesses). Numerous mucosal enterocytes contain an eosinophilic 4-7 um intranuclear viral inclusion body that marginates chromatin and is surrounded by a clear halo and/or one or more 4-9 um eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusions. Affected enterocytes often form viral syncytial cells with up to ten nuclei, which multifocally contain intranuclear viral inclusions. There is multifocal, marked crypt herniation deep into depleted submucosal lymphoid germinal centers, which exhibit lymphocytoloysis and are infiltrated by increased numbers of macrophages and plasma cells. Macrophages and lymphocytes often contain previously described intranuclear inclusions. Small vessels in the submucosa, tunica muscularis, and serosa are surrounded by few lymphocytes and occasional plasma cells. The serosa is mildly expanded by edema and fibrin.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Colon:  Colitis, erosive and necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with lymphoid depletion, crypt herniation and enterocytic, lymphocytic and histiocytic eosinophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies and viral syncytial cells, breed not specified, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Morbilliviral colitis

CAUSE:  Bovine morbillivirus (Rinderpest virus)

CONDITION:  Rinderpest (RP)

SYNONYMS:  Cattle plague

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

For gastrointestinal ulceration in bovines:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Other morbilliviral diseases:

REFERENCES:

  1. Foreign Animal Diseases “The Gray Book”. Committee on Foreign Animal Diseases of the United States Animal Health Association. St. Joseph, MO; 2008: 377-382.
  2. Spickler AR, Roth JA. Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 2008: 223-224, 280-281.
  3. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, eds. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 128-130.
  4. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier, 2017: 200-203.


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