JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Cardiovascular system
April 2019
C-N02 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #2630322):  Old military working dog

HISTORY:  This dog had a mass on the right atrium of the heart.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Heart, right atrium:  Expanding the myocardium and replacing 95% of cardiac myocytes, is an unencapsulated, poorly circumscribed, poorly demarcated, moderately cellular, infiltrative neoplasm composed of spindle cells forming irregularly sized blood-filled vascular channels, often wrapping collagen or rarely forming streams, bundles or more solidly cellular areas.  Neoplastic cells have variably distinct cell borders,  moderate amount of eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm, irregularly oval to elongate nuclei that occasionally bulge into vascular channels, coarsely clumped chromatin and up to 2 distinct nucleoli.  Mitosis averages 3-5 per 40 x high power field.  Anisokaryosis and anisocytosis are marked. Subjacent cardiac myocytes are swollen and pale (degenerate) or shrunken and hypereosinophilic with pyknotic nuclei (necrotic).There are and few fibrin thrombi, scattered single cell necrosis, scattered aggregates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and viable and degenerate neutrophils.  Surrounding the neoplastic cells is abundant hemorrhage, large coalescing areas of bright eosinophilic polymerized fibrin admixed with small amounts of necrotic debris, hematoiden and low numbers of hemosiderin laden macrophages.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Heart, right atrium:  Hemangiosarcoma, breed not specified, canine.

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURE:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Gross masses in or near the heart:

Histologic differential diagnosis for vascular proliferations: 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Hemangiosarcoma in other species:

REFERENCES:

  1. Anwar SH, Yanai T, Sakai H. Immunohistochemical detection of urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in canine vascular endothelial tumors. J Comp Pathol. 2015:153(4):278-82.
  2. Bolfa P, DellaGrotte L, Weronko T, et al. Cutaneous epithelial hemangiosarcoma with granular cell differentiation in a dog: a case report and review of the literature. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018;30(6):951-954.
  3. Cole PA. Association of canine splenic hemangiosarcomas and hematomas with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia or siderotic nodules. J Vet Diagn Invest.  2012; 24:759-762.
  4. Cooper BJ, Valentine BA. Muscle and Tendon. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 244-245.
  5. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and Joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:122.
  6. Goeritz M, Mueller K, Krastel D, et al. Canine splenic hemangiosarcoma: Influence of metastases, chemotherapy, and growth pattern on post-splenectomy survival and expression of angiogenic factors. Comp. Path. 28 Dec 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  7. Hendrick MJ, Mahaffey EA, Moore FM, Vos JH, Walder EJ. Histological Classification of Mesenchymal Tumors of Skin and Soft Tissues of Domestic Animals, 2nd series, vol. II. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998:22-25.
  8. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology. 6th ed. Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, Maryland; 1997: 944, 988-990,1024-1025, 1102-1103.
  9. Moore AS, Rassnick KM, Frimberger AE. Evaluation of clinical and histologic factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: 30 cases (2011-2014). J Am Vet Med Asso. 2017:251(5):559-565.
  10. Murai A, Abou Asa S, Kodama A, et. al. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway in canine hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas. Comp. Path. 2012;147:430-440.
  11. Nobrega DF, Sehaber VF, MAdureira R. Canine Cutaneous Hemangiosarcoma: Biomarkers and Survival. J Comp Pathol. 2019;166:87-96.
  12. Robinson WF, Robinson NA. Cardiovascular System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:98-101.
  13. Rodriguez AM , Graef AJ,  Le Vine DN. et al. Association of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor-1 pathway with cell proliferation and survival in canine hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med;29(4):1088-97.
  14. Southwood LL, Schott HC, Henry CJ, et al. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in the horse: 35 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:105-109.
  15. Van Vleet JF, Ferrans V. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Cardiovascular system. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier;  2012:587, 553, 560, 757-758, 1083.
  16. Valli VE, Bienzle D, Meuton DJ. In: Meuten J, ed. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press; 2017:309-313.


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