JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-V08

SIGNALMENT:  A 7-day-old CD rat.

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Small intestine: Diffusely up to 80% of the villi are mildly to moderately blunted, atrophic and fused, and lined by attenuated to cuboidal epithelial cells. Epithelial cells at the tips of the villi are often swollen/hypertrophied and contain abundant, pale eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Multifocally, villous tip enterocytes form syncytia with abudant pale flocculant cytoplasm, and containing up to 15 nuclei. Enterocytes are multifocally necrotic, characterized by shrunken, eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei and replacement by karyorrhectic debris. The lamina propria is mildly expanded by low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils and eosinophils.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:   Small intestine: Villar blunting, atrophy and fusion, diffuse, moderate, with multifocal epithelial vacuolar degeneration and viral syncytia, CD rat, rodent.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:   Rotaviral enteritis

CAUSE:   Type B (atypical) rotavirus

CONDITION: Infectious Diarrhea of Infant Rats (IDIR)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Causes of diarrhea in rats:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Almeida PR, Lorenzetti E, Cruz RS, et al. Diarrhea caused by rotavirus A, B, and C in suckling piglets from southern Brazil: molecular detection and histologic and immunohistochemical characterization. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 May;30(3):370-376.
  2. Balasuriya UBR, Stott JL. Reoviridae. In: Hirsh DC, MacLachlan NJ, Walker RL, eds. Veterinary Microbiology. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2004: 404-406.
  3. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016:37-38, 267-268.
  4. Beserra LA, Gregori F. Description of rotavirus F in broilers from Brazilian poultry farms. Avian Dis. 2014 Sep;58(3):458-61.
  5. Conner ME, Ramig RF. Viral enteric diseases. In: Nathanson N, ed. Viral Pathogenesis. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1997: 720-743.
  6. Day JM. Rotavirus Infection. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed., Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press;2013:281-291.
  7. Frederick J, Giguere S, Sanchez LC. Infectious agents detected in the feces of diarrheic foals: a retrospective study of 233 cases (2003-2008). J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23:1254-1260.
  8. Gelberg HB. Alimentary System and the Peritoneum, Omentum, Mesentery, and Peritoneal Cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:374-375.
  9. Huber AC, Yolken RH, Mader LC, Strandberg JD, Vonderfecht SL. Pathology of infectious diarrhea of infant rats (IDIR) induced by an antigenically distinct rotavirus. Vet Pathol. 1989; 26:376-85.
  10. Uzal FA, Platter BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 112;115-117;151-153.
  11. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of Microbial Infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:200.


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