JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

August 2016

I-F09

Signalment (JPC 1397818):  Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin

HISTORY:  This dolphin had extensive white, crusting, cutaneous lesions.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Slide A:  Non-haired skin:  Along the epidermal-dermal junction there are multiple coalescing, expansile nodules composed of numerous epithelioid macrophages, fewer multinucleate giant cells (both Langhans and foreign body type), occasional lymphocytes, plasma cells, and rare neutrophils that separate and compress adjacent dermal collagen bundles.  Extracellularly and within histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, there are numerous round to oval, 6 - 12 µm wide, clear yeast with a 1 µm thick wall and, infrequently, a 2 - 4 µm eosinophilic center.  Multifocally, the epidermis is irregularly hyperplastic, with prominent broad rete ridges.  There is diffuse mild parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and multiple small colonies of 1 x 3 µm bacilli along the epidermal surface.  There are colonies of mixed bacteria present within a few dermal vessels (postmortem overgrowth). 

Slide B (Gridley"s stain):  Intrahistiocytic and extracellular 6 x 12 µm round to oval yeast are often connected by slender tubal structures forming variably long chains.  Multiple yeast have single or multiple buds.  Adjacent macrophages contain Gridley"s positive finely granular material (digested fungi).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Non-haired skin:  Dermatitis, granulomatous, nodular, multifocal, moderate, with epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, and numerous intrahistiocytic and extracellular yeast, etiology consistent with Lacazia loboi, Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), cetacean.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cutaneous lacaziosis

CAUSE:  Lacazia loboi (formerly Loboa loboi)

CONDITION:  Lobo’s disease

SYNONYMS:  Lobomycosis; keloidal blastomycosis

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

 COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

 References: 

  1. Bossart GD. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health. Vet Pathol. 2011; 48(3): 676-690.
  2. Cornelis E. et al. Genital herpesvirus in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Cultivation, epidemiology, and associated pathology. J Wildl Dis. 2009; 45(4):895-906.
  3. Dold C. Cetacea (whales, dolphins, porpoises). In: Miller RE, Fowler M, eds. Fowler"s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Vol 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015:431.
  4. Durden WN, et al. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2009; 45(3): 849-856.
  5. Migaki G, Jones SR: Mycotic diseases in marine mammals. In: Pathology of Marine Mammal Diseases. Vol II., Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc; 1983: 8-9.
  6. Reif JS, et al. Evaluation and comparison of the health status of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, and Charleston, South Carolina. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233(2):299-307.
  7. Refi JS, et al. Lobomycosis: Risk of zoonotic transmission from dolphins to humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic. 2013; 13(0): 1-5.
  8. Reif JS, et al. Lobomycosis in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006; 228(1):104-108.


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