JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

PULMONARY SYSTEM

August 2017

P-B09

 

Signalment (JPC #2012606):  Female Hartley guinea pig

HISTORY:  This guinea pig was from a colony with unusual morbidity and mortality following acquisition from the supplier.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung (multiple sections):  Affecting approximately 40% of the lung and often centered on bronchioles are large, multifocal to coalescing areas of lytic necrosis, characterized by loss of normal tissue architecture with replacement by necrotic cellular debris, fibrin, and numerous heterophils with fewer macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Heterophils are often degenerate with streaming nuclei (oat cells), and line well-demarcated areas of necrosis. Adjacent alveolar septa are frequently necrotic, with replacement by fibrin, edema, hemorrhage, and low numbers of heterophils and macrophages. Similar inflammatory cells, along with fibrin and necrotic cellular debris, multifocally fill and often obscure bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. The bronchiolar epithelium is often attenuated with loss of cilia, sloughed into the lumen, or mildly hyperplastic, with piling up. In less affected areas, alveolar septa are multifocally expanded up to five times normal by inflammatory cells (previously described), alveoli contain homogenous eosinophilic material (edema), or alveoli are dilated and confluent with septal fragmentation and loss (emphysema).  Focally, the pleura is lined by small numbers of inflammatory cells (previously described) admixed with fibrin, and multifocally mesothelial cells are hypertrophied (reactive).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Bronchopneumonia, necrosuppurative, subacute, multifocal to coalescing, marked, Hartley guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), rodent.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Pulmonary bordetellosis

CAUSE:  Bordetella bronchiseptica

CONDITION:  Bordetellosis (epizootic pneumonia)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

VIRULENCE FACTORS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

 COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

  1. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier Limited; 2016:578-579.
  2. Caswell JL. Failure of respiratory defenses in the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia of cattle. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(2):393-409.
  3. Priestnall SL, Mitchell JA, Walker CA et al. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease. Vet Pathol. 2014; 52(2): 492-504.
  4. In Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 132-133;222-223;271-272;:
  5. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2017:173-175.
  6. In: Abee C, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T. Non-Human Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd San Diego, CA: Academic press/Elsevier; 2012: 124-125.


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