JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
March 2018
H-B07

Signalment (JPC Accession #1758896):  Cow

HISTORY:  An enlarged lymph node from a slaughtered cow

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Slide A: Lymph node:  Approximately 60% of the normal architecture is effaced by multiple individual to coalescing pyogranulomas that are up to 4 mm in diameter.  Pyogranulomas have a central core containing large colonies of basophilic, 1x2 um coccobacilli surrounded by radiating, club-like eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli material and deeply basophilic, granular material mineral, surrounded by moderate numbers of viable and degenerate neutrophils, epithelioid macrophages, and fewer multinucleated giant cells containing up to 20 peripheralized nuclei (Langhans-type).  These cells are further rimmed by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and plump fibroblasts (fibrosis) surrounded by a dense band of fibrous connective tissue.  The lymph node capsule is thickened, up to1 mm, by fibrous connective tissue and is multifocally infiltrated by small numbers of the previously described inflammatory cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lymph node:  Pyogranulomas, multiple with Splendore-Hoeppli material, and coccobacilli, breed unspecified, bovine.

Slide B: Tongue: Expanding the submucosal connective tissue and skeletal muscle are multiple individual to coalescing pyogranulomas up to 5 mm in diameter.  Pyogranulomas are composed of a central core of basophilic, 1 x 2 um coccobacilli, surrounded by abundant eosinophilic, club-shaped, radiating Splendore-hoeppli material and lesser amount of deeply basophilic granular mineral, admixed with numerous viable and degenerate neutrophils, epithelioid macrophages, and occasional multinucleated giant cells containing up to 20 peripheralized nuclei (Langhans-type).  These cells are further rimmed by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and plump fibroblasts (fibrosis) surrounded by a dense layer of fibrous connective tissue.  Surrounding and separating pyogranulomas, expanding the submucosa and separating skeletal muscle bundles are dense bands of mature collagen (fibrosis) admixed with moderate numbers of lymphocytes and fibroblasts, and fewer plasma cells and macrophages. Affected skeletal muscle fibers are occasionally variably sized, shrunken and pale (atrophy).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Tongue:  Pyogranulomas, multiple with fibrosis, atrophy, Splendore-Hoeppli material, and coccobacilli, breed unspecified, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Actinobacillary lymphadenitis

CAUSE:  Actinobacillus lignieresii

CONDITION:  Wooden tongue

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References

  1. Caffarena RD, Rabaza A, Casaux L, Rioseco MM, Schild CO, Monesiglio C, Fraga M, Giannitti F, Riet-Correa F. Natural lymphatic ("atypical") actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Mar;30(2):218-225.
  2. Carmalt JL, Baptiste KE, Chirino-Trejo JM. Actinobacillus lignieresii infection in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;215(6):826-828.
  3. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Grünberg W. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. 11th ed. London, England, UK: WB Saunders Company LTD; 2017:532-534.
  4. Layman QD, Rezabek GB, Ramachandran A, Love BC, Confer AW. A retrospective study of equine actinobacillosis cases: 1999-2011. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 May;26(3):365-375.
  5. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 18-19.
  6. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 103.
  7. Valentine BA. Skeletal muscle. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 926, 942.
  8. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:

 

 

 


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