JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-P06

Signalment (JPC #1622313):  Male boa constrictor

HISTORY:  This pet snake developed diarrhea that was unresponsive to ampicillin.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Stomach, glandular portion:  Diffusely the gastric mucosa is thickened up to 2mm, forming papillary and frond-like projections (hyperplasia).  There are increased numbers of mucous cells that often separate, compress and replace gastric glandular epithelium (mucus hyperplasia and metaplasia).  Lining apical and luminal epithelium and free within the lumen are numerous 2-6 um diameter, round, pale amphophilic to basophilic protozoa with variably distinct 1-2 um basophilic nuclei.  Multifocally the lamina propria contains small numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer heterophils.  Diffusely, gastric glands are separated by clear space and multifocally lymphatics are ectatic and contain an eosinophilic, amorphous substance (edema).  Occasionally gastric glands are distended by sloughed epithelial cells, cellular debris and few basophilic, 1 X 6 um bacilli.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Stomach:  Gastritis, proliferative, chronic, diffuse, marked, with mucus neck cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and numerous free and apically attached protozoa, etiology consistent with Cryptosporidium sp., Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), ophidian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Gastric cryptosporidiosis

CAUSE:  Cryptosporidium serpentis

Signalment (JPC #3103340): 4-year-old intact male rhesus macaque

HISTORY: Animal was CD8 depleted, treated with anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody and infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to study CD4-T cell kinetics. Months after infection, animal became lethargic and anorexic with weight loss.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Bile duct, extrahepatic: There is circumferential biliary epithelial hyperplasia, characterized by piling up of epithelial cells with formation of prominent villar-like papillary projections which extend into the lumen. The mucosal epithelium ranges from cuboidal to columnar with large, prominent vesiculate nuclei, increased mitotic figures (up to three per HPF) and scattered apoptotic cells. Goblet cells are increased in number and multifocally replace epithelial cells (goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia).  Lining the apical and luminal epithelium and free within the lumen are multiple 2-6 um diameter, round, pale amphophilic to basophilic protozoa with variably distinct 1-2 um basophilic nuclei.  Multifocally the lamina propria contains moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer histiocytes and eosinophils admixed with mild hemorrhage which extends multifocally into the adjacent mesentery. There is mild periductal fibrosis.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Bile duct: Cholangitis, proliferative, chronic, circumferential, moderate, with goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, periductal fibrosis and apical protozoa, etiology consistent with Cryptospordium sp., rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), nonhuman primate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Biliary cryptosporidiosis

CAUSE: Cryptosporidium sp.

GENERAL:

LIFE CYCLE:

PATHOGENESIS:

CLINICAL FINDINGS:

GROSS FINDINGS:

MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

hypertrophy and hyperplasia of crypt epithelium

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th Ames, IA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2016: 82, 108, 152, 189, 204-205, 235-236, 297.
  2. Brower AI, Cranfield MR. Cryptosproidium-associated enteritis without gastritis in rough green snakes (Opheodrys aestivus) and a common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32(1):101-105.
  3. Curtiss JB, Leone AM, Wellehan JF Jr, Emerson JA, Howerth EW, Farina LL. Renal and cloacal cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium avian genotype V) in a Major Mitchell’s cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri). J Zoo Wild Med. 2015;46(4):934-937.
  4. Dubey JP, Markovits JE, Killary KA. Cryptosporidium muris-like infection in stomach of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).Vet Pathol. 2002;39:363-371.
  5. Gookin JL, Nordone SK, Arenzio RA. Host responses to Cryptosporidium infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2002;16:12-21.
  6. Li S, Li W, Yang Z, et al. Infection of cattle with Cryptosporidium parvum: Mast cell accumulation in small intestine mucosa. Vet Pathol. 2013;50(5):842-848.
  7. Mahapatra D, Reinhard M, Naikare HK. Adenovirus and cryptosporidium co-infection in a corn snake (Elaphae guttata guttata).  J Zoo Wild Med. 2013;44(1):220-224.
  8. Masuno K, Yanai T, Hirata A, Yonemaru K, Sakai H, Satoh M, Masegi T, Nakai Y. Morphological and immunohistochemical features of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle. Vet Pathol. 2006; 43:202-207.
  9. McDougald LR: Cryptosporidiosis. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013:1167-1171.
  10. Strait K, Else JG, Eberhard ML. Parasitic Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc; 2012:209-213.
  11. Uhl EW, Jacobson E, Bartick TE, Micinilio J, Schimdt R. Aural-pharyngeal polyps associated with cryptosporidium infection in three iquanas (Iguana iguana). Vet Pathol. 2001;38:239-242.
  12. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:239-241.
  13. Wasson K, Peper RL. Mammalian Microsporidiosis. Vet Pathol. 2000; 37:113-128.


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