JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Cardiovascular system
April 2019
C-P02

Signalment:  Horse

HISTORY:  This horse had a large thrombosed mesenteric artery

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Artery, mesenteric: The endothelium and tunica intima are diffusely effaced and replaced by fibrin, hemorrhage, necrotic debris, fibrous connective tissue and many enmeshed eosinophils, plasma cells and macrophages; the internal elastic lamina is effaced and the tunica media is multifocally expanded by abundant fibrous connective tissue, proliferative smooth muscle and fibrin admixed with eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, hemorrhage, small caliber blood vessels and necrotic cellular debris (proliferative and necrotizing endarteritis). Abundant polymerized fibrin is forming a large intraluminal thrombus composed of an eosinophilic, fibrillar mesh that entraps erythrocytes, inflammatory cells and multiple cross and tangential sections of larval nematodes up to 220 um in diameter with a smooth 6 um thick cuticle, platymyarian-meromyarian musculature, prominent lateral cords, a pseudocoelom, and a large, central intestine lined by few multinucleated cells with a prominent brush border (true strongyle larvae). The adventitia is infiltrated by low numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils surrounding vessels. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Artery, mesenteric:  Endarteritis, proliferative and necrotizing, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, severe, with focal thrombus, and subendothelial larval strongyles, breed not specified, equine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Strongylid arteritis

CAUSEStrongylus vulgaris

SYNONYMS:  Large strongyles, aberrant larval migrans, verminous arteritis

GENERAL DISCUSSION

PATHOGENESIS

LIFE CYCLE

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Bowman DD. In: Bowman DD, ed. Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians. 10th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:419-420.
  2. DeLay J, Peregrine AS, Parsons DA. Verminous arteritis in a 3-month-old thoroughbred foal. Can Vet J. 2001;42:289-291.
  3. Gardiner CH, Poynton SL. Strongyles. In: An Atlas of Metazoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. Washington, DC; Armed Forces Institute of Pathology:2006; 22-24.
  4. Gelberg, HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:390-391.
  5. Kassai T. Phylum: Nemathelminthes – roundworms. In: Veterinary Helminthology. Oxford, England; Butterworth Heinemann: 1999:60-63.
  6. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessels. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis for Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:602,604.
  7. Robinson WF, Robinson NA. Cardiovascular system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:32,61,85-87.
  8. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:216-217.


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