JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

September 2017

P-P15

 

Signalment (JPC# 2019292):  9-week-old crossbred female cat

HISTORY:  This cat presented with a nasal discharge, cough, and labored respiration

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION: 

Trachea:  Diffusely and circumferentially, the submucosa is thickened up to 700um by moderate numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fewer eosinophils,  neutrophils and edema.  Multifocally the epithelium piles up to 8-10 cell layers deep (hyperplasia), or is attenuated and eroded, often lacks cilia, and is infiltrated by numerous neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, admixed with necrotic debris and sloughed epithelial cells. There is multifocal squamous metaplasia.  Within the superficial epithelium there are several cross and tangential sections of adult nematode parasites, up to 80 um in diameter with a 2 um thick, eosinophilic cuticle; a pseudocoelom with coelomyrian-polymyarian musculature; bacillary bands; a stichosome (basophilic stichocytes surrounding the esophagus); and a reproductive tract.  Submucosal glands are often ectatic, lined by attenuated epithelial cells and contain small amounts of mucin.

Lung:  Multifocally, up to 60% of this section is affected with bronchi and bronchioles that have an epithelium that is hyperplastic, piled up to 6 layers deep, forming folds into the lumen, which is variably filled with sloughed epithelial cells, an exudate composed of abundant mucin, eosinophils, degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils, macrophages, fewer lymphocytes, necrotic cellular debris, and multifocally, few previously described adult nematodes.  The inflammatory cell population penetrates through the smooth muscle surrounding the airways and surrounds the peribronchial and peribronchiolar glands which are hyperplastic.  Multifocally in the adjacent pulmonary parenchyma, effacing alveolar septa and filling alveolar lumina, are numerous neutrophils and macrophages admixed with necrotic cellular debris, colonies of 2um coccobacilli, fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema.  Less affected alveoli are filled with eosinophilic fluid (edema) and septa are thickend up to three times normal with congestion, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.  There is marked perivascular edema and mild hemorrhage with increased clear space and dilated lymphatics.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS

  1. Trachea: Tracheitis, proliferative, pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic, diffuse, moderate, with squamous metaplasia, submucosal gland ectasia, and aphasmid nematodes, mixed breed, feline.
  2. Lung: Bronchitis and bronchiolitis, pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with respiratory and glandular epithelial hyperplasia, and intraluminal and interepithelial aphasmid nematodes.  
  3. Lung: Pneumonia, necrosuppurative, acute, multifocal, moderate,  with edema, hemorrhage and numerous colonies of cocci.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

1.Tracheal and bronchial/bronchiolar eucoliasis
2. Bacterial pneumonia


CAUSE:

1. Eucoleus aerophilus (previously Capillaria aerophila)
2. Unknown bacteria (not cultured)

 

GENERAL DISCUSSION

PATHOGENESIS

LIFE CYCLE

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY

Intraepithelial nematodes:

REFERENCES

  1. Bowman DD. Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians. 10th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: 226-227.
  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol 2. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:585.
  3. Gardiner CH, Poynton SL. An Atlas of Metazoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1999: 40-43.
  4. Lacasse C. Falconiformes. In: Miller RE, Fowler ME, ed. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Vol. 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: 137.
  5. McDougald LR. Internal parasites. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013: 1121-1123.
  6. Strait KS, Else JG, Eberhard ML. Parasitic diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T ed. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. London, UK: Academic Press; 2012: 244-245.

 


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |