JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-V04

Signalment (JPC #2257451):  Male rhesus monkey

HISTORY:  A male rhesus monkey was found dead

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Spleen:  Diffusely, periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths are pale and surrounded by a rim of hemorrhage.  Within white pulp there is fibrin and edema admixed with cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis), apoptotic lymphocytes (lymphocytolysis), tingible body macrophages that often contain intracytoplasmic phagocytosed cellular and karyorrhectic necrotic debris, and few scattered neutrophils. The rim of hemorrhage surrounding periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths is admixed with small amounts of necrotic debris and separates the follicle from the follicular mantle.  Diffusely, the red pulp is expanded by abundant fibrin, mild edema, karyorrhectic debris, and few scattered macrophages and neutrophils.  Multifocally, transmurally, the tunica muscularis, tunica media, and tunica intima of vessels are disrupted and replaced by abundant fibrin, cellular and karyorrhectic debris (vasculitis), and few neutrophils with frequent endothelial cell hypertrophy, vacuolization, or detachment (reactivity, degeneration, and necrosis).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Spleen, periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths and follicular mantle zone:  Lymphoid necrosis, multifocal, moderate to severe, with lymphocytolysis, vasculitis, perifollicular hemorrhage, and extensive fibrin deposition, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), nonhuman primate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Arteriviral splenitis

CAUSE:  Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV)

CONDITION: Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Splenic perifollicular hemorrhage:

Epistaxis:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Arteriviruses:

REFERENCES:

  1. Alves DA, Glynn AR, Steele KE, et al. Aerosol exposure to the angola strain of marburg virus causes lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in cynomolgus macaques. Vet Pathol. 2010;47(5):831-51.
  2. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016:25-26.
  3. Calle PP, Ott Joslin J. New World and Old World Monkeys.  In: Miller RE, Fowler ME.  Fowler’s zoo and wild animal medicine. Vol. 8.  Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 324.
  4. Johnson RF, Dodd LE, Yellayi S, et al. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease. Virology. 2011;421(2):129-40.
  5. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. London, UK: Academic Press; 2017: 415-423.
  6. Simmons J, Gibson S. Bacterial and mycotic diseases of nonhuman primates.  In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol. 2.  2nd ed.  Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2012:130.
  7. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral diseases of nonhuman primates.  In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol. 2.  2nd ed.  Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2012:38-41, 47-49, 51-52.
  8. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2016:210, 212, 230.


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