JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
January 2018
U-T13

Signalment (JPC #1218877):  A pig

HISTORY:  Free ranging pig developed trembling, weakness, incoordination, and coma.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Within the cortex and medulla, 80-85% of the renal tubules are mildly ectatic and exhibit one or more of the following changes: degeneration, characterized by swollen epithelial cells with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei; necrosis, characterized by hypereosinophilic cytoplasm, and karyorrhectic or faded nuclei; or regeneration, characterized by basophilic cytoplasm, vesiculate nuclei, and rare mitoses. Tubular and ductal lumina contain varying amounts of eosinophilic proteinaceous material (proteinosis) and occasional aggregates of sloughed epithelial cells and neutrophils (cellular casts).  Multifocally Bowman’s space is moderately dilated and contains brightly eosinophilic homogenous proteinaceous material.  There is edema in the peripelvic connective tissue characterized by numerous markedly dilated lymphatics that contain moderate amounts of beaded fibrillar eosinophilic material (fibrin) and few lymphocytes, plasma cells and erythrocytes.  Focally within the renal papilla, the urothelium is attenuated, there is peri-pelvic fibrosis, and the subjacent parenchyma is compressed into a 5 mm band of tissue with dilated renal tubules (hydronephrosis). Multifocally, the capsule is depressed overlying  wide radiating bands of fibrous connective tissue that extend from the capsule to the pelvis.  In these areas of fibrosis, there is tubular and glomerular loss, tubular atrophy, and glomerulosclerosis.  Scattered throughout the interstitium there are moderate numbers of lymphocytes, fewer plasma cells and neutrophils, and rare eosinophils.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSES:  1. Kidney:  Tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration, multifocal, moderate, with granular and cellular casts and diffuse peripelvic edema, breed unspecified, porcine.

  1. Kidney: Fibrosis, focally extensive, moderate with tubular and glomerular loss and mild multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis.
  2. Kidney: Hydronephrosis, focally extensive, mild.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Toxic nephropathy

CAUSE:  Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)

CONDITION:  Perirenal edema disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Examples of nephrotoxins in various species:

REFERENCES:

  1. Breshears MA, Confer AW. The urinary system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier; 2017:657.
  2. Carson TL. Toxic minerals, chemicals, plants, and gases. In: Straw BE, Zimmerman JJ, D'Allaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of Swine. 9th ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2006:977-978.
  3. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:386, 427.
  4. Galey FD. Disorders caused by toxicants. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:1702-1703.
  5. Sebastian MM. Role of pathology in diagnosis.  In: Gupta RC, ed. Veterinary Toxicology. New York, NY: Elsevier Inc; 2007:171, 1125-1126.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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