JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

November 2016

I-P14

 

Signalment (JPC #1957380):  18-month old nguni bull

HISTORY:  Two out of 10 cattle had alopecia with chronic skin lesions. Skin scrapings were negative for parasites, and weekly dipping had no effect on the lesions.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin:  Multifocally expanding the superficial dermis, and occasionally within the deep dermis, are numerous, round to ovoid protozoal tissue cysts up to 400um that compress adjacent dermal collagen and adnexa. Tissue cysts have a 30um thick, pale eosinophilic outer and inner cell walls that surround a 10um rim of host cell cytoplasm with multiple enlarged nuclei that are compressed by a 250um intracytoplasmic parasitophorous vacuole that contains numerous, densely packed, crescentic-shaped, 3-5 um bradyzoites.  Multifocally surrounding the tissue cysts are low numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer eosinophils.  Multifocally, surrounding the cysts, there is increased amount of mature dermal collagen (fibrosis).  The overlying epidermis is mildly hyperplastic with rete ridges and moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin:  Dermatitis, granulomatous and eosinophilic, multifocal, moderate, with epidermal hyperplasia and numerous protozoal tissue cysts, etiology consistent with Besnoitia besnoiti, nguni, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cutaneous besnoitiosis 

CAUSE:  Besnoitia besnoiti

CONDITION: Besnoitiosis

SYNONYMS:  Globidiosis, elephant skin disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Intermediate Host

Besnoitia spp.

Definitive Host

Equids

B. bennetti

Unknown

Goats, sheep

B. caprae

Unknown

Reindeer, caribou

B. tarandi

Unknown

Rabbits

B. oryctofelis

Feline

Opossums

B. darling

Feline

Southern plain woodrat

B. neotomofelis

Feline

Rodents

B. wallacei

Feline

 

References:

  1. Cortes HCE, et al. Isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from infected cattle in Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 141: 226-233.Gardiner CH, Fayer R, Dubey JP. An Atlas of Protozoan Parasites in Animal Tissues, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998: 49-52.Langenmayer MC, Gollnick NS, Majzoub-Altweck M, Scharr JC, Schares G, Hermanns W. Naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: Histological and immunohistochemical findings in acute, subacute, and chronic disease. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(3): 476-488.
  2. Juan-Salles C, Rico-Hernandez G, Garner MM, Barr BC. Pulmonary besnoitiasis in captive maras (Dolichotis patagonum) associated with interstitial pneumonia. Vet Pathol. 2004; 41: 408-411.
  3. Leighton FA, Gajadhar AA. Besnoitia and besnoitiosis. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA, eds. Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals, 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2001: 468-478.
  4. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 661-663.
  5. Ness SAL, et al. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014; 26(6): 778-782.
  6. Oryan A, Namazi F, Silver IA. Histopathologic and ultrastructural studies on experimental caprine besnoitiosis.Vet Pathol. 2011; 48(6): 1094-100.
  7. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD. Diseases associate with protozoa. In: Veterinary Medicine, a Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, and Goats. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: 1517-1518.
  8. Shaw S, et al. Besnoitia darlingi infection in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginia). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009; 40: 220-223.


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