JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-T14 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #2548607):  3-month-old mixed breed beef heifer

HISTORY:  This heifer was one of several calves and cows that were acutely ill.  Several died in the last four months.  This calf died enroute to the laboratory.  A bottle of monosodium methanearsonate herbicide with a pinhole leak had been dripping into a meal supplement in a storage shed.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Rumen:  Diffusely there is a lack of normal ruminal papillar architecture with blunting, collapse and loss of papillae.  The mucosal epithelium is eroded, ulcerated, and multifocally separated from the underlying lamina propria and replaced by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis), keratin debris, eosinophilic fibrillar fibrin, hemorrhage, edema, numerous viable and degenerate neutrophils and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells, and few small colonies of coccobacilli.  Multifocally within the lamina propria, most severely underlying areas of ulceration, there is necrotic debris, viable and degenerate neutrophils, edema and fibrin.  Edema and neutrophils extend transmurally through all layers of the rumen to the serosa.. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Rumen:  Rumenitis, necrohemorrhagic and neutrophilic, acute, diffuse, severe, with transmural congestion and edema, mixed breed, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Rumenal arsenic toxicosis

CAUSE:  Organic arsenic (trivalent)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS (for clinical signs):

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Arnold LL, Suzuki S, Yokohira M, Kakiuchi-Kiyota S, Pennington KL, Cohen SM. Time course of urothelial changes in rats and mice orally administered arsenite. Toxicol Pathol. 2014;42(5):855-862.
  2. Bertin FR, Baseler LJ, Wilson CR, Kritchevsky JE, Taylor SD. Arsenic toxicosis in cattle: meta-analysis of 156 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(4):977-981.
  3. Cantile C, Youssef S. Nervous system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:327-328.
  4. Ensley SM, Osweiler GD. Toxic minerals, chemicals, plants and gases. In: Zimmerman JJ, Karriker LA, Ramirez A, Schwartz KJ, Stevenson GW, eds. Diseases of Swine. 10th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012:954.
  5. Galey FD. Disorders caused by toxicants. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:1709-1710.
  6. Garland T. Arsenic. In: Gupta RC, ed. Veterinary Toxicology. New York, NY: Academic Press; 2007: 418-421.
  7. Haschek WA, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA. Gastrointestinal tract. In: Haschek WA, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2010:180.
  8. Hays AM, Lantz RC, Rodgers LS, et al. Arsenic-induced decreases in the vascular matrix. Toxicol Pathol. 2008;36(6):805-817.
  9. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:571.
  10. Miller AD, Zachary JF. Nervous system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2017:854.
  11. Neiger R, Nelson N, Miskimins D, Caster J, Caster L. Bovine arsenic toxicosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16(5):436-438.
  12. Palmieri MA, Molinari BL. Effect of sodium arsenite on mouse skin carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2015;43(5):704-714.
  13. Uzal FA, Platter BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:51, 52, 57, 100, 114.
  14. Valentine BA, Rumbeiha WK, Hensley TS, Halse RR. Arsenic and metaldehyde toxicosis in a beef herd. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19(2):212-215.
  15. Waalkes MP, Ward JM, Liu J, Divan BA. Transplacental carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in the drinking water: induction of hepatic, ovarian, pulmonary, and adrenal tumors in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;186(1):7-17.


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