JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-M04 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #A29):  5-week-old Holstein calf

HISTORY:  This calf was born with a leukocyte count of 17,400/ul (65% PMN).  At 2 days of age, 23,200/ul (78% PMN); at 14 days of age, 36,600/ul (87% PMN); at 22 days of age, 54,200/ul (93% PMN); at 25 days of age, the calf had a fever of 106 degrees Fahrenheit (41 degrees Celsius), a leukocyte count of 65,000/ul and was unresponsive to antipyretic therapy.  At 35 days of age, the calf died during the night.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  1.  Spleen:  Diffusely the white pulp is decreased and red pulp is markedly expanded by numerous mature neutrophils, fewer plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages admixed with abundant eosinophilic, beaded material (fibrin) and eosinophilic homogeneous fluid (edema).  Multifocally there are circumscribed areas of necrosis characterized by a central area with loss of architecture and replacement with abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) surrounded by many degenerate and viable neutrophils admixed with abundant fibrin and edema.  The splenic capsule is thickened by fibrin and low numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages.  Capsular lymphatics are ectatic (edema).

  1. Bone marrow: The bone marrow is mildly hypercellular and precursors of all blood cell lines are represented.  Over 50% of the cells present are progenitor/proliferating cells of the myeloid series.  The myeloid to erythroid (M:E) ratio is approximately 3:1.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  1.  Spleen:  Splenitis, neutrophilic and necrotizing, diffuse, moderate with marked lymphoid depletion, Holstein, bovine.

  1. Bone marrow: Myeloid hyperplasia with increased progenitor cells, diffuse, moderate.

CAUSE:  CD11/CD18 glycoprotein deficiency, autosomal recessive inheritance

CONDITION: 

Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

  1. Ackermann MR. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:e1, 83.e3 - 83.e4.
  2. Debenham SL, Millington A, Kijas J, Andersson L, Binns M. Canine leucocyte adhesion deficiency in Irish red and white setters. J Small Anim Pract. 2002;43(2):74-75.
  3. Gu YC, Bauer TR Jr, Ackermann MR, et al. The genetic immunodeficiency disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice. Comp Med. 2004;54(4):363-372.
  4. Hanna S, Etzioni A. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2012;1250(1):50-55.
  5. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Inflammation and repair. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathological Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:75-78.
  6. Nagahata H. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review. J Vet Med 2004; 66(12):1475-1482.
  7. Nunes JS, Lawhon SD, Rossetti A, et al. Morphologic and cytokine profile characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium infection in calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Vet Pathol. 2010;47(2):322-333.
  8. Taniyama H, Yamamoto S, Sako T, Hirayama K, Higuchi H, Nagahata H. Systemic kappa AL amyloidosis associated with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Vet Pathol 2000;37(1):98-100.
  9. Tizard IR. Veterinary Immunology. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:451.
  10. Zimmerman KL, McMillan K, Monroe WE, Sponenberg DP, Evans N, Makris M, Hammond SH, Kanevsky Mullarky I, Boudreaux MK. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I in a mixed-breed dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013 Mar;25(2):291-296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |