JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NOVEMBER 2018
D-V17

Signalment (JPC #2317403):  A kudu

HISTORY:  This animal lived in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Tongue:  Within approximately 50% of the focally extensively ulcerated lingual epithelium, there are multifocal to coalescing vesicles, which contain hemorrhage, fibrin, proteinaceous edema fluid, eosinophilic to basophilic necrotic debris (lytic necrosis), myriad of viable degenerate neutrophils,(vesicopustules) and slough keratinocytes that are either swollen and vacuolated (degeneration) or shrunken with a scant amount of hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nucleus (necrosis).  Multifocally in the adjacent epithelium there is transmigration of neutrophils in all layers of the epithelium, intercellular edema and prominence of intercellular bridging (spongiosis), and intracellular vacuoles within keratinocytes (hydropic degeneration).  Expanding the subepithelial connective tissue are moderate numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, edema and hemorrhage concentrated around vessels (perivascular). Vessels are lined by hypertrophic (reactive) endothelium. Multifocally within skeletal myocytes are 100 x 200 um diameter, oval protozoal cysts with a prominent 7 um-thick hyalinized cyst wall that contain numerous crescentic, 3 x 15-20 um bradyzoites. Within the cornified epithelium, there are numerous filamentous chains of multiple paired cocci.   

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSES

  1. Tongue:  Glossitis, vesiculopustular, neutrophilic, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, acute, with ulceration and intra- and intercellular epidermal edema, Kudu (Tragelaphus sp.), artiodactyl.
  2. Tongue, skeletal muscle: Intramuscular protozoal cysts, multiple, etiology consistent with Sarcocystis sp. 

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Aphthoviral glossitis

CAUSE:  Aphthovirus

CONDITION:  Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS in cattle:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Disease

Cause

Ruminant

Swine

Horse

Foot-and-mouth disease

Aphthovirus

+

+

--

Swine vesicular disease

Enterovirus

--

+

--

Vesicular stomatitis

Rhabdovirus

+

+

+

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Calicivirus

--

+

--

Seneca virus

Senecavirus

?

+

?

REFERENCES:

  1. Alexandersen S, Zhang Z, Donaldson AI, Garland AJM. The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J Comp Path. 2003; 129:1-36.
  2. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:340, 345-346,391.
  3. Monaghan P, et al. The ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK-38 cells. J Virol. 2004; 85: 933-946.
  4. Moniwa M, et al. Experimental foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in white tailed deer. J Comp Path. 2012; 147: 330-342.
  5. Officer K, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014; 26(5): 705–713.
  6. Segales J, Barcellos D, Alfieri A, Burrough E, Marthaler D. Senecavirus A: A Emerging Pathogen Causing Vesicular Disease and Mortality in Pigs? Vet Pathol. 2017:54(1):11-21.
  7. Spickler AR, Roth JA. Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 2008: 163-164, 262-265.
  8. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, eds. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 117-119.
  9. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:203.


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