JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

SEPTEMBER 2016

I-M03

Signalment (JPC #1963156):  Parakeet

HISTORY:  Cutaneous mass from the wing.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Feathered skin (2 sections):  Diffusely expanding the dermis and subcutis and widely separating feather follicles are multiple, coalescing lipid granulomas (xanthogranulomas).  Granulomas are centered on aggregates of lipid, scant eosinophilic cellular debris and numerous linear, up to 300um, clear acicular clefts (cholesterol clefts).  Cholesterol clefts are surrounded by numerous tightly packed epithelioid macrophages with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm that contains many small, clear, discrete vacuoles (lipid).  These are further surrounded by multinucleate giant cells with up to 40 nuclei that are arranged centrally (foreign body type), peripherally (Langhans type), or have a central area of dense eosinophilic cytoplasm bordered by multiple nuclei arranged in a circle that are surrounded by a peripheral rim of clear cytoplasm (Touton type). Multifocally there are low numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils and fewer plasma cells. There is mild epidermal hyperplasia with minimal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and mild intercellular edema.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Feathered skin:  Lipid granulomas (xanthogranulomas), multiple, coalescing, with Touton type multinucleate giant cells, and acicular cholesterol clefts, parakeet, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cutaneous xanthoma

SYNONYM:  Xanthomatosis, xanthogranulomas

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

For gross findings:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy, DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. Ames, IA. Wiley Blackwell; 2016:314.
  2. Garner MM, Lung NP, Murray S. Xanthomatosis in geckos: Five cases. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1999; 30:443-447.
  3. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2016:700.
  4. Goldschmidt MH, Hendrick MJ. Tumors of the skin and soft tissue. In: Meuten DJ ed. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press; 2002: 111-112.
  5. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Diseases of the dermis. In: Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2005: 330-333.
  6. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. In: Veterinary Pathology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1997: 869-870.
  7. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Pathology of Pet and Avian Birds. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2003:145,194,198-9.
  8. Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell CL. Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2013:542.
  9. Shivaprasad HL. Miscellaneous diseases. In: Boulianne M, ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2013; 224, 260, 291.


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