JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-P01 (NP)

SIGNALMENT:  A dog 

HISTORY:  Blood smear from a dog.  Differential white cell count:  Segs - 85% (35-75), Bands 5%, Monos - 8% (1-4), Lymphs - 2% (20-55), nRBC - 18/100 WBC.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Peripheral blood:  In this highly cellular, good quality blood smear erythrocytes are decreased in density and widely separated within the monolayer (anemia), with a mild increase in white blood cells (leukocytosis), and a paucity of platelets (thrombocytopenia).  The majority of white blood cells are segmented neutrophils with fewer scattered bands neutrophils.  There are increased numbers of monocytes (monocytosis) with rare lymphocytes (lymphopenia).  There are numerous nucleated red blood cells and a moderate degree of anisocytosis and polychromasia (regenerative anemia).  There are numerous 1-µm diameter, basophilic, coccobacillary bacteria on the surface of over 90% of the erythrocytes in this smear.  They occur singularly, in pairs and in short chains.  There are numerous background crystalline structures (artifact).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Peripheral blood smear:  Regenerative anemia with neutrophilia, left shift, monocytosis, lymphopenia and epicellular erythrocytic bacteria, morphology consistent with Mycoplasma haemocanis, breed unspecified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Hemotropic mycoplasmas; Erythrocytic mycoplasmosis; Hemoplasmosis

CAUSE:  Mycoplasma haemocanis

SYNONYMS:  Hemobartonella canis; Eperythrozoon spp.

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:  Hemotropic mycoplasmas, or called hemoplasmas

Cat

M. haemofelis, M. turicensis, M. haemominutum

Dog

M. haemocanis  (H canis; Bartonella canis)- anemia

M. cynos - respiratory disease

M. canis - urogenital tract infections

 

Cattle

Anaplasma marginale / centrale

Paranaplasma caudatum / discoides

M. wenyonii - anemia, edema, lymphadenopathy, and fever

M. hemobos - pathogenicity is unclear

Sheep, goats

M. ovis - only rarely causes hemolytic anemia

Llamas, alpacas

M. haemolamae - acute anemia, in crias and stressed adults

Avian

Aegyptianella pullorum

Swine

M. haemosuis - piglets fever, hemolytic anemia, and hypoglycemia

E. parvum

Mouse, rat

M. haemomuris

E. coccoides

Non-Human Primates

Mycoplasma spp.- abortions

Hemobartonella-like noted in Cynomolgus macaques

References:

  1. Allison RW, Meinkoth JH. Anemic caused by rickettsia, mycoplasma and protozoa. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, eds. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010: 201-202.
  2. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow and blood cells and the lymphoid / lymphatic system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 751.
  3. Bravo PW. Camelidae In: Miller RE, Folwer ME, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal medicine. Vol 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 598.
  4. Cline JM, Brignolo L, Ford EW. Urogential system. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, et al. eds.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol. 2.  2nd Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2012: 526-527.
  5. Dillberger JE, Loudy DE, Adler RR, et al. Hemobartonella-like parasites in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol. 1994; 31(3): 301-307.
  6. Pitorri F, Dell"Orco M, Carmichael N, et al. Use of real-time quantitative PCR to document successful treatment of Mycoplasma haemocanis infection with doxycycline in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012; 41(4): 493-496.
  7. Robertson JL, Teske E. Disorders of the spleen. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, eds. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010: 379.
  8. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 124-125

 

 

 


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