JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
August 2018
D-B12

SIGNALMENT (AFIP#1946537):  Tissue from a 4-year-old yellow-naped Amazon parrot

HISTORY: The bird became progressively docile, passive, and depressed.

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Multifocally there are random irregularly round, variably sized (up to 1 mm diameter) areas of lytic necrosis characterized by complete loss of hepatic architecture with replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, and heterophils, surrounded by hemorrhage, multinucleated giant cells (foreign body and Langhan’s type), epithelioid macrophages, and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells.  Multifocally, there are random foci of coagulative necrosis characterized by retention of hepatic cord and cellular architecture with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia. Multifocally, few random hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contain intracytoplasmic gray indistinct granular coccoid bacteria.  Hepatocytes surrounding areas of necrosis often have vacuolated cytoplasm and are dissociated from hepatic chords (degeneration).  Diffusely, sinusoids are expanded by macrophages, heterophils and lymphocytes.  Multifocally hepatocytes are mildly vacuolated and contain small aggregates of brown, granular pigment (bile, hemosiderin and/or lipofuscin).  Bile ducts are prominent, mildly ectatic, and lined by hyperplastic epithelium characterized by piling up, mild anisokaryosis and increased mitotic activity (regeneration) with adjacent dilated lymphatic vessels and periductular clear space (edema).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, heterophilic and granulomatous, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, with mild bile duct hyperplasia and intracellular bacteria, yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Ochrocephala auropalliate), avian.

ETIOLOGY:  Chlamydophila psittaci

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Chlamydial hepatitis

CONDITION:  Avian chlamydiosis (birds); psittacosis (humans)

GENERAL:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: (in birds)

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURE:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

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  2. Borel N, Polkinghorne A, Pospischil A. A review on Chlamydial diseases in animals: still a challenge for Pathologists?. Vet Pathol. 2018; 55(3):374-390.
  3. Beekman DSA, Vanrompay DCG. Biology and intracellular pathogenesis of high or low virulent Chlamydophila psittaci strains in chicken macrophages. Vet  Micro. 2010; 141: 342-353.
  4. Caswell JL, et al. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: 551.
  5. Dusek RJ, Justice-Allen A, Bodenstein B, et al. Chlamydia psittaci in feral rosy faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) and other backyard birds in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2018; 54(2): 248-260.
  6. Eidson M. Psittacosis/avian chlamydiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:1710-1712.
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  8. Gerlach H. Chlamydia. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, eds. Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing; 1994: 984-996.
  9. Harkinezhad T, Geens T, Vanrompay D. Chlamydophila psittaci infections in birds: A review with emphasis on zoonotic consequences. Vet Micro. 2009; 135: 68-77.
  10. Lujan-Vega C, Hawkins MG, Johnson CK, et al. Atypical Chlamydiaceae in wild populations of hawks (Buteo) in California. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2018; 49(1):108-115.
  11. Pilny A, Quesenberry K, Bartick-Sedrish T, Latimer K, Berghaus R. Evaluation of Chlamydophila psittaci infection and other risk factors for atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds. J AM Vet Med Assoc 2012; 240: 1474-1480.
  12. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Pathology of Pet and Aviary Birds. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2003.
  13. Shivaprasad HL, Carnaccini S, Bland M, et al. An unusual outbreak of Chlamydiosis in commercial turkeys involving the nasal glands. Avian Dis. 2015; 59(2):315-322.
  14. Smith KA, Campbell CT, Murphy J. Compendium of Measures To Control Chlamydophila psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV). Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. 2011; 20; 32-35.
  15. Sprague LD, Schubert E, Hotzel H, Scharf S, Sachse K. The detection of Chlamydophila psittaci genotype C infection in dogs. The Veterinary J. 2009; 181: 274-279.
  16. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: 199.
  17. Woldehiwet Z. Avian Chlamydophilosis (chlamydiosis/psittacosis/ornithosis). In: Pattison M, McMullin PD, Bradbury JM, Alexander DJ, eds. Poultry Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2008: 235-242.
  18. Yin L, Lagae S, Kalmar I, Borel N, Pospichil A, Vanrompay D. Pathogenicity of Low and Highly Virulent Chlamydia psittaci Isolates for Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens. Avian Diseases. 2013; 57:242-247.


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