JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
JANUARY 2018
U-T14

Signalment (JPC# 2026206):  4‑month‑old female Hereford calf

HISTORY:  This herd lost fifteen 300-pound beef calves in two days

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Over 90% of cortical and approximately 50% of medullary tubular epithelium is characterized by one or more of the following changes: necrosis characterized by hypereosinophilic cytoplasm with loss of cellular detail, pyknosis, and sloughing into tubular lumina which often affects collocated groups of tubules; degeneration, characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolation and swelling; mineralization; tubular ectasia with attenuation; or rarely, intracytoplasmic globules of intensely eosinophilic material (hyaline droplets).  Affected tubular lumina are often ectatic and contain one or more of the following: hemorrhage, pale to intensely eosinophilic globular to homogenous material (proteinosis), sloughed tubular epithelial cells admixed with necrotic debris and/or degenerate leukocytes (granular casts), or mineralized material.  Multifocally, vessels are lined by hypertrophied endothelium and arteries are occasionally surrounded by moderate perivascular hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema.  Multifocally, the cortical interstitium is expanded by small aggregates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, fewer macrophages, mild interstitial fibrosis, and increased clear space with ectatic lymphatics (edema).  Multifocally, the uriniferous space is mildly expanded by proteinaceous fluid or hemorrhage, and rarely the glomerular tuft is adhered to the parietal layer of Bowman’s capsule (synechiae).  Rare glomerular tufts are shrunken and hypocellular, with thickened capillary basement membranes (sclerosis).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:   Kidney:  Tubular necrosis and degeneration, diffuse, with intratubular hemorrhage, proteinosis, granular casts, mineralization, mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis, and perivascular hemorrhage and edema, Hereford, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Oak bud nephrosis

CAUSE:  Oak bud toxicity (Quercus spp.)

CONDITION:  Oak bud, acorn, or gallotannin poisoning

GENERAL:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Agrawal K, Ebel JG, Altier C, Bischoff K. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.  J Vet Diag Invest.  2013;25(1):112-119.
  2. Breshears MA, Confer AW. The urinary system.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017: 672-673.
  3. Ciancolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed.  Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:427-428.
  4. Tripathi NK, Gregory CR, Latimer KS. Urinary system. In: Latimer KS, ed. Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011:272-280.


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