JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

September 2017

P-V01

 

Signalment (JPC #4044167/Slide A): Tissue from a one-year-old male greyhound 

HISTORY:  Two week history of breathing difficulty, inappetence, and lethargy. 

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Lung: There is diffuse consolidation, characterized by abundant hemorrhage, affecting 95% of the section, bronchi and bronchilar lumina contain a hemorrhagic cellular exudate, bronchiolar epithelium is hyperplastic, and there is perivascular edema.  Alveolar septa are thickened up to three times normal by macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fibrous connective tissue.  Septa are often necrotic with eosinophilic karryorhectic and cellular debris that extends into the alveoli lumina, which are variably filled with  many  neutrophils, alveolar macrophages which are foamy and often contain brown granules (hemosiderin), along with necrotic debris, fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema.  There is alveolar type II pneumocyte  hyperplasia and pneumocytes are often multi-nucleated with up to eight nuclei (viral syncytia) and frequently contain 4um eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies; these syncytial cells are often hypereosinophilic with karryorhectic nuclei (necrosis) and have been sloughed into alveolar lumina. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium is multifocally hyperplastic with cells piling up to five layers, forming folds into the lumina which contains an exudate composed of neutrophils, macrophages, fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema.  Intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies are occasionally present within the epithelial cells.  Bronchial and bronchiolar glands are frequently ectatic, lined by attenuated epithelium and contain a similar exudate to the airways.  Glandular epithelium also contains similar intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies.  The lamina propria of these airways is infiltrated by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages which blend in with the inflammatory population present in the alveolar septa.  The pleural surface is hypertrophic and lined by reactive mesothelial cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing and lymphohistiocytic, diffuse, severe, with pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, viral syncytia, intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and hemorrhage.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Morbilliviral pneumonia

CAUSE: Canine Morbillivirus

SYNONYM: Canine distemper; Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:   

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

DISEASE

NATURAL HOSTS

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION

Measles

Human; NHP

Macaque; marmoset; mouse; hamster; rat

Rinderpest

Cattle; pig; goat; sheep; buffalo; warthog; wildebeest; others

Goat; cattle; pig; deer

Peste des petits ruminants

Goat; sheep; gazelle; ibex; gemsbok

Goat; cattle; pig; deer

Phocine distemper

seal

Dog; mink; seal

Canine distemper virus

Pinnipedia, NHP, Suidae; All terrestrial carnivores: Canidae; Mustelidae; Procyonidae; Felidae; Viverridae and Nandindiiae (civets), Hyaenidae, Ursidae, Pholidota

Dog; mouse; rat; hamster; mink; pig; cat; NHP; ferret

Cetacean morbillivirus

Dolphin and porpoise

Cattle; sheep; goat; dog

Equine morbillivirus (Hendra)

Horse; human; Pteropus bat

cat

Porcine morbillivbirus (Nipah)

Pig; human; Pteropus bat

No data

Feline morbillivirus

Feline

No data

 

REFERENCES: 

  1. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid/lymphatic system. In: Zachary JF. ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:759-760.
  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed.St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:574-576.
  3. Green CE, Vandevelde M: Canine distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO:Elsevier Saunders; 2006:25-42.
  4. Kiupel M, Perpiñán. Viral diseases of ferrets. In: Fox JG, Marini RP. eds. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2014: 440-450.
  5. Kubiski SV, Siso S, Church ME, Cartoceti AN, Barr B, Pesavento PA. Unusual necrotizing encephalitis in raccoons and skunks concurrently infected with canine distemper virus and Sarcocystis sp. Vet Pathol. 2016;53(3):674-676.
  6. Lopez A, Martinson SA: Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 545.
  7. Lowenstine LJ, Osborn KG. Respiratory system diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee Cr, Mansfield K, tardif S, Morris T. eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases Vol. 2. London, UK: Academic Press; 2012: 43-46.
  8. Miller RE, Fowler ME. Eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Vol. 8. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: 288, 372-373, 463, 472-474, 503-504, 512-513.
  9. Noyce, RS, Delpeut, S, Richardson, CD. Dog nectin-4 is an epithelial cell receptor for canine distemper virus that facilitates virus entry and syncytia formation. Virology 2013;436:210–220.
  10. Sakai K, Nagata N, Ami Y, Seki F, Suzaki Y, Iwata-Yoshikawa N, et al. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008. J Virol. 2013;87:1105–1114
  11. Techangamsuwan S, Banlunara W, Radtanakatikanon A, Sommanustweechai A, Siriaroonrat B, Lombardini ED, et al. Pathologic and Molecular Virologic Characterization of a Canine Distemper Outbreak in Farmed Civets. Vet Pathol. 2014;52(4):724-731.
  12. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed.St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:116-117.
  13. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee Cr, Mansfield K, tardif S, Morris T. eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases Vol. 2. London, UK: Academic Press; 2012: 43-46.
  14. Wenzlow N, Plattet P, Wittek R, Zurbriggen A, Groene A. Immunohistochemical demonstration of the putative canine distemper virus receptor CD150 in dogs with and without distemper. Vet Pathol 2007;44:943-948
  15. Woo PC, Lau SK, Wong BH, Fan RY, Wong AY, Zhang AJ, et al. Feline morbillivirus, a previously undescribed paramyxovirus associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis in domestic cats. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2012;109: 5435–5440.
  16. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF. ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:225-226.


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