JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-M09

Signalment (AFIP #1851823):  Adult white leghorn chicken

HISTORY:  None.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Esophagus:  Diffusely, the submucosal glands are markedly ectatic, dilated up to 2 mm, and the glandular epithelium is replaced by gradually keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium (squamous metaplasia).  The lumina are variably occluded or expanded by eosinophilic lamellations of keratin, admixed with few degenerate heterophils, necrotic debris, and multifocal areas of a deeply basophilic granular, fragmented material (mineral).  Multifocally, within the lamina propria and surrounding glands, there are aggregates of predominantly lymphocytes with fewer plasma cells, macrophages and heterophils.  Diffusely, mucosal epithelium is mildly hyperplastic characterized by prominent rete ridges, acanthosis, intracellular edema and prominent intercellular bridges.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Esophagus:  Mucous gland squamous metaplasia and ectasia, diffuse, severe, with moderate chronic periglandular esophagitis, mucosal epithelial hyperplasia and mineralization, white leghorn chicken, avian.

CAUSE:  Vitamin A deficiency (Hypovitaminosis A)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

Epithelial differentiation:

 Vision:

Growth:

CNS: 

Reproduction:

Immune function:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Vitamin A deficiency:

 Vitamin A toxicity:

REFERENCES:

  1. Klasing, KC. Nutritional diseases. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013:1210-1213.
  2. Baldwin TJ, Rood KA, Kelly EJ, Hall JO. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency. J Vet Diag Invest. 2012; 24:763.
  3. Cantile C, Youssef, S. Nervous system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:293, 320.
  4. Cassidy JP, et al. Leukoencephalomyelopathy in specific pathogen-free cats. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:912-916.
  5. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:393.
  6. Cortes PL, Tiwary AK, Puschner B, Crespo RM, Chin RP, Bland M, Shivaprasad HL. Vitamin A deficiency in turkey poults. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:489-494.
  7. Craig, LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:82, 86-89.
  8. Foster, RA. Male reproductive system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1207.
  9. Labelle, P. The eye. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1308.
  10. Maratea KA, Hooser SB, Ramos-Vara JA. Degenerative myelopathy and vitamin A deficiency in a young black-maned lion (Panthera leo). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:608-611.
  11. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:581, 693-695.
  12. Naylor AD, Pizzi, R, Cole, G, et al. Suspected hypovitaminosis a-associated salt gland adenitis in Northern Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes moseleyi). J Zoo Wildlife Med. 2018:420-428.
  13. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:8, 31, 36, 74.
  14. Wilcock, BP, Njaa BL. Special senses. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:471.

 

 

 


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