JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

September 2016

I-M26

Signalment (JPC #2152K):  Dog

HISTORY:  This dog had multifocal alopecia, crusting, and hyperpigmentation of the skin of the head and trunk.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin:  Multifocally expanding the hyperplastic epidermis are subcorneal pustules that span several hair follicles and are filled with numerous neutrophils, few eosinophils and moderate numbers of individualized acantholytic keratinocytes with a central nucleus and a condensed eosinophilic cytoplasm.  The underlying epidermis is acanthotic and keratinocytes exhibit prominent intercellular bridging (spongiosis) and also contain vacuoles within their cytoplasm (intracellular edema).  There is a moderate neutrophilic exocytosis.  The remaining adjacent epidermis is characterized by mild acanthosis, spongiosis and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis.  Diffusely at the dermal-epidermal junction there is a lichenoid band of inflammation characterized by moderate numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes, with fewer plasma cells, eosinophils, and macrophages, which occasionally infiltrate the deeper dermis and surround adnexae.  Rare neutrophils are also within follicular epithelium.  Collagen bundles are separated by clear space and there are dilated lymphatics (edema) and apocrine glands are mildly ectatic.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin:  Subcorneal pustules with acantholysis, multifocal, moderate, with moderate neutrophilic dermatitis, breed unspecified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Autoimmune dermatitis

CONDITION:   Pemphigus foliaceus

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For gross findings (pustular and crusting dermatitis):

For microscopic findings (subcorneal pustules):

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

References: 

  1. Amagi M. The molecular logic of pemphigus and impetigo: The desmoglein story. Vet Derm. 2009: 20:308-312.
  2. Bizikova P, Dean GA, Hashimoto T, Olivry T. Cloning and establishment of canine desmocolin-1 as a major autoantigen in canine pemphigus foliaceus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012: 149 (3-4); 197-207.
  3. Bizikova P, Olivry T, Mamo LB, Dunston SM. Serum autoantibody profiles of IgA, IgE and IgM in canine pemphigus foliaceus.  Vet Derm. 2014;25:471-475.
  4. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Infectious nodular and diffuse granulomatous and pyogranulomatous diseases of the dermis. In: Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat, Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell; 2005: 13018, 265-266, 415-417.  
  5. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:1051-1054.
  6. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2016: 601-602.
  7. Peters J, Scott DW, Erb HN, Miller WH Jr: Comparative analysis of canine dermatophytosis and superficial pemphigus for the prevalence of dermatophytes and acantholytic keratinocytes: A histopathological and clinical retrospective study. Vet Dermatol. 2007;18(4):234-240.


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