JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
April 2019
C-M05

Signalment (JPC #1948332):  13-year-old male Labrador retriever

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Heart:  Diffusely, the lumina of large elastic and muscular coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded by thickened vessel walls.  The internal elastic lamina is disrupted / discontinuous and the tunica intima and tunica media are markedly disorganized and expanded by multifocal to coalescing aggregates of lipid-laden macrophages with abundant foamy, microvacuolated cytoplasm (foam cells), numerous acicular cholesterol clefts (extracellular lipid), amphophilic granular cellular debris, mineral, hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and small amounts of fibrous connective tissue (the latter two within the tunica media) .  The tunica adventitia is expanded by fibrous connective tissue and low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer macrophages that infiltrate into adjacent fibroadipose tissue.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Heart, coronary arteries:  Atherosclerosis, diffuse, severe, with intimal and medial foam cells, cholesterol clefts, mineralization and smooth muscle hypertrophy, Labrador retriever, canine.

CONDITION:  Atherosclerosis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

Arteriosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

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  2. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Rabbit. In: Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH, eds. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2016:272; 314.
  3. Beaufrere H, Reavill D, Heatley J. Lipid Related Lesions in Quaker Parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) Vet Pathol. 2019;56(2):282-288.
  4. Evans EW. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. In: Latimer KS, ed. Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011: 187-188.
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  7. Kagawa Y, Hirayama K, Uchida E, et al. Systemic atherosclerosis in dogs: histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions. J Comp Pathol. 1998;118(3):195-206.
  8. Lindsey JR, Fox RR. Inherited diseases and variations. In: Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE, eds. The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press Inc.; 1994:311.
  9. Lowenstine LJ, McManamon R, Terio KA. Comparative pathology of aging great apes: bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. Vet Pathol. 2016;53(2):250-276.
  10. Miller AD, Zachary JF. Nervous System. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:856-857.
  11. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular System and Lymphatic Vessels. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:600-601.
  12. Mitchell RN. Blood vessels. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2015:491-501.
  13. Nemeth NM, Gonzalez-Astudillo V, Oesterle PT, et al. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Avian Disease Diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia. J Comp Path. 2016;155(2-3):105-120.
  14. Robinson WF, Robinson NA. Cardiovascular system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016:36; 56-60.
  15. Shim J, Al-Mashhadi RH, Sorensen CB, Bentzon JF. Large animal models of atherosclerosis—new tools for persistent problems in cardiovascular medicine. J Pathol. 2016;238(2):257-266.
  16. Swindle MM, Makin A, Herron AJ, Clubb FJ, Frazier KS. Swine as models in biomedical research and toxicology testing. Vet Pathol. 2012;49(2):344-356.
  17. Yanni AE. The laboratory rabbit: an animal model of atherosclerosis. Lab Anim. 2004;38(3):246-256.


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