JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
SPECIAL SENSES
April 2018
S-M08 (NP)

Signalment (JPC Accession # 2045612):  Mixed breed dog, age and gender unspecified

HISTORY:  This dog developed bilateral cataracts and was euthanized when vision impairment was almost total

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Eye:  Multifocally, separating rostral corneal stromal fibers and mildly elevating the corneal epithelium are numerous extracellular clear to foamy vacuoles and acicular clefts (lipid vacuoles and cholesterol clefts) that are up to 150 um long and are surrounded by many macrophages with swollen pale vacuolated cytoplasm and an eccentrically displaced nucleus (lipid-laden macrophages) and fewer multinucleated giant cells. In the most severely affected areas, the cornea is thickened up to 1.7 mm.  Multifocally, within the corneal stroma, there are few to many lymphocytes and fibroblasts and few small caliber blood vessels (vascularization).  The overlying rostral corneal epithelium is variably hyperplastic, up to 2.5 times normal thickness, with acanthosis and prominent rete ridges.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Eye, cornea:  Lipidosis and histiocytosis, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with vascularization, mixed breed, canine

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Corneal lipid dystrophy   

CAUSE:  Unknown 

CONDITION:  Corneal lipidosis; corneal lipoidosis; spontaneous crystalline corneal opacities

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES: 

  1. Dubielzig RR, Ketring KL, McLellan GJ, Albert DM. Diseases of the cornea and sclera. In: Veterinary Ocular Pathology: A Comparative Review. Louis, MO: Elsevier Limited; 2010:206-208.
  2. Garibaldi BA, Pequet Goad ME. Lipid keratopathy in the Watanabe (WHHL) Rabbit. Vet Pathol. 1998; 25:173-4.
  3. Labelle P. The eye. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease.  6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2016:1298-1299.
  4. Ledbetter EC, Gilger BC. Diseases and surgery of the canine cornea and sclera: In: Gelatt KN, Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2013:1015-1020.
  5. Richter M, Grest P, Spiess B. Bilateral lipid keratopathy and atherosclerosis in an alpaca (Lama pacos) due to hypercholesterolemia. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1503-1507.
  6. Shilton CM, Smith DA, Crawshaw GJ, Valdes E, et al. Corneal lipid deposition in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and its relationship to serum lipids: an experimental study. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32(3):305-319.
  7. Walton KW, Dunkerley DJ. Studies on the pathogenesis of corneal arcus formation II. Immunofluorescent studies on lipid deposition in the eye of the lipid-fed rabbit. J Pathol. 1974;114:217-229.
  8. Wilcock BP, Njaa BL. Special senses: In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy , and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol 1.  Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier;2016:433.
  9. Williams DL, Whitaker R. The amphibian eye—a clinical review. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1994;25:18–28.                                                                                                                      


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