JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-P11 (NP)

Signalment (JPC # 1644924):  Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus)

HISTORY:  This pheasant was found dead in a zoo.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Cecum:  Multifocally expanding the submucosa and elevating the overlying mucosa, are multiple, focal to coalescing nodules up to 2 mm in diameter, composed of spindle cells arranged in whorls and interlacing bundles, admixed with macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, often centered on adult or larval nematodes.  Adult nematodes are up to 500 um in diameter and have a thin smooth cuticle, lateral alae, polymyarian/coelomyarian musculature, lateral cords, a pseudocoelom, an intestinal tract lined by columnar uninucleate cells with a brush border, an ovary, and a uterus containing developing ova.  Nodules often contain one or more variably sized granulomas with a central core of necrotic debris surrounded by a thin rim of epithelioid hemosiderin laden macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and fewer fibroblasts, lymphocytes and plasma cells.  Diffusely the lamina propria is expanded by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fewer hemosiderin laden macrophages, often in aggregates, heterophils, and increased clear space (edema).  The crypts are multifocally shallow and widely separated by the edematous lamina propria, and the superficial mucosa is multifocally eroded.  Numerous small coccobacilli multifocally line the luminal epithelium.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cecum: Typhlitis, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate, with atypical nodular mesenchymal proliferations, and adult and larval nematodes, etiology consistent with Heterakis isolonche, golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), avian

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cecal heterakiasis

CAUSE:  Heterakis isolonche

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Abdul-Aziz T, Barnes HJ. Avian Histopathology Text and Atlas. Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2018: 181.
  2. Gardiner CH, Poynton SL. An Atlas of Metazoan Parasites in Animal Tissue. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1999: 20.
  3. Griner LA, Migaki G, Penner IR, McKee AE. Heterakidosis and nodular granulomas caused by Heterakis isolonche in the ceca of gallinaceous birds. Vet Pathol. 1977; 14: 582-590
  4. Himmel L, Cianciolo R. Nodular typhlocolitis, heterakiasis, and mesenchymal neoplasia in anring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) with immunohistochemical characterization of visceral metastases. J Vet Diag Invest. 2018; 29(4): 561-565.
  5. Menezes RC, Tortelly R, Gomes DC, Pinto RM. Nodular typhlitis associated with the nematodes Heterakis gallinarum and Heterakis isolonche in pheasants: Frequency and pathology with evidence of neoplasia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003; 98: 1011-1016.
  6. McDougald LR. Internal parasites. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013: 1123-1124.


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