JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Cardiovascular system
April 2019
C-P06

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2105205):  Dog; breed, age and gender not specified

HISTORY:  This dog had heart failure.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Heart:  Diffusely and transmurally, cardiac myocytes are separated, surrounded, and replaced by high numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, fewer neutrophils and fibroblasts with multifocal areas that contain eosinophilic beaded to finely fibrillar material (fibrin), and increased clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema).  Up to 80 percent of remaining cardiac myocytes are swollen, pale and vacuolated sarcoplasm (degeneration), shrunken, with angular hypereosinophilic or fragmented sarcoplasm with pyknosis or karyolysis and loss of cross striations (necrosis), or shrunken with variation in size and variable separation by fibrous connective tissue (atrophy).  Multifocally, individual myofibers contain variably sized up to 60 x 125 um intrasarcoplasmic oval pseudocysts with numerous 2-4 um round to oval protozoal amastigotes, with a central distinct basophilic nucleus and a rod-shaped kinetoplast adjacent to the nucleus.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Heart:  Pancarditis, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic, chronic-active, diffuse, severe, with cardiac myocyte degeneration and necrosis, and intramyocytic protozoal amastigotes, breed not specified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Trypanosomal myocarditis

CAUSE:  Trypanosoma cruzi

SYNONYMS:  Chagas disease; American trypanosomiasis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

 

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

Species

Disease

Definitive Host

Intermediate Host

Geographic Distribution

T. cruzi

Chagas disease; American Trypanosomiasis

Man; dogs, cats, monkeys, opossums, armadillos

Kissing bug

 

Central and South America and southern U.S.

T. evansi

Surra

Equidae (horses), camels,  ruminants, dogs, cats, elephants

Horse, tsetse flies

Africa, Asia, S. America, Far East

T. equiperdum Dourine

Equidae

Transmitted by coitus

Cosmopolitan; rare in the United States

T. vivax

Souma, RBC parasitemia, myocarditis in cattle

Cattle, sheep, horses, goats, camels

Tsetse fly

Central and South America

T. brucei brucei

 

Nagana; myocarditis in dogs

Man; domestic and wild mammals (not goats)

Tsetse fly

Tropical Africa

T. congolense

Trypanosomiasis, localization within cerebral and skeletal muscle vasculature; orchitis with inflammation of vaginal tunics; myocarditis in cattle

Equidae, ruminants, pigs, dogs, camels, rabbits, rats, mice

Tsetse fly

Tropical Africa

T. rhodesiense,

T. gambiense

African Sleeping Sickness

Man, antelopes

Tsetse fly

East and Tropical Africa

T. equinum

Mal de Caderas

Equidae

 

Tropical and Subtropical South America

T. hippicum

Murrina de Caderas

Horses and mules

 

Central America

T. lewisi

Non-pathogenic

Rats

 

Research

T. rangeli

Non-pathogenic to vertebrate hosts

Man; cats, dogs

Uniquely, can be transmitted by inoculation or contamination

South America

T. melophagium

Non-pathogenic

Sheep

Ked

 

T. theodori

Non-pathogenic

Goats

Hippoboscid fly

Middle East

 

REFERENCES:

  1. Badra ES, et al. Histopathological changes in the placentas and fetuses of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from the Myotis nigricans nigricans J Comp Pathol. 2008;139(2-3):108-12.
  2. Boes, KM and Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid/lymphatic system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:749.
  3. Cheville NF. Pathogenic protozoa. In: Ultrastructural pathology: The Comparative cellular basis of disease. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009:529-34.
  4. Comeaux JM, Curtis-Robles R, Lewis BC, et al. Survey of feral swine (Sus scrofa) infection with the agent of Chagas Disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in Texas, 2013-3. J Wildl Dis. 2016; 52(3):627-630.
  5. Esper L, et al. Role of SOCS2 in modulating heart damage and function in a murine model of acute Chagas disease. Am J Pathol. 2012;181(1):130-40.
  6. Greene CE. African trypanosomiasis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of Cats and Dogs. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier-Saunders; 2012:730-34.
  7. Gunter SM, Cordray C, Gorchakov R, Du I, et al. Identification of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a novel reservoir species for Trypanosoma cruzi in Texas, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2018; 54(4):814-818.
  8. Nagajyothi F, Kuliawat R, Kusminski CM, Machado FS, Desruisseaux MS, Zhao D, Schwartz GJ, Huang H, Albanese C, Lisanti MP, Singh R, Li F, Weiss LM, Factor SM, Pessin JE, Scherer PE, Tanowitz HB. Alterations in glucose homeostasis in a murine model of Chagas disease. Am J Pathol. 2013;182(3):886-94.
  9. Nichols MD, Lord WD, Haynie ML, Brennan RE, Jackson VL, Monterroso WS. Trypanosoma cruzi in a Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) in Oklahoma, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2019; 55(2):444-448.
  10. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:445-447.
  11. Snowden KF, Kjos SA. American trypanosomiasis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of Cats and Dogs. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier-Saunders; 2012:722-30.
  12. Souza BSdF, Silva DN, Carvalho RH, et al. Association of cardiac galectin-3 expression, myocarditis, and fibrosis in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017;187(5):1134-1146.
  13. Vladimir Cruz-Chan J, Quijano-Hernandez I, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Dumonteil E. Dirofilaria immitis and Trypanosoma cruzi natural coinfection in dogs. The Vet J: 2009:1-3.
  14. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2016:121-124.

 


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