JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-M11 (NP)

Signalment (AFIP Accession # 2287584):  6-year-old female donkey

HISTORY:  1-week history of anorexia, depression, and weakness; in late gestation.  On PE: increased heart and respiration rates, dehydration, and dependent edema.  The serum was grossly lipemic.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Diffusely the hepatocytes are markedly enlarged by a discrete clear cytoplasmic vacuole (lipid) up to 20um in diameter that flattens and displaces the nucleus to the periphery (vacuolar degeneration, lipid type).  Multifocally, vacuoles of adjacent hepatocytes coalesce.  There are few hepatocytes that are shrunken, hypereosinophilic, and pyknotic (necrosis).  Diffusely, sinusoids are collapsed.  Multifocally, portal areas contain few lymphocytes and plasma cells, admixed with rare neutrophils.  The capsule is mildly thickened by fibrous connective tissue, and the liver has a rounded contour.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver, hepatocytes:  Vacuolar change, lipid-type, diffuse, severe, breed unspecified, donkey (Equus asinus), equine.

CONDITION:  Hepatic lipidosis, hyperlipemia syndrome, equine hyperlipidemia, fatty liver disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIAGNOSIS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Bain PJ. Liver. In: Latimer KS, ed. Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011:225-226.
  2. Bernard JM, Newkirk KM, McRee AE, Whittemore JC, Ramsay EC. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(2):369-376.
  3. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJ, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas.  In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:457.
  4. Burden FA, Toit ND, Hazell-Smith E, Trawford AF. Hyperlipemia in a population of aged donkeys: description, prevalence, and potential risk factors. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:1420–1425.
  5. Conwelll R. Hyperlipaemia in a pregnant mare with suspected masseter myodegeneration. Vet 2010; 166: 116-117.
  6. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and biliary system.  In: Maxie MG, eds. Jubb Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2, 6th ed., Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:276-278.
  7. Kramer JA, et al. The Common Marmoset as a Model for the Study of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(2):404.
  8. Mazaki-Tovi M, et al. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(2):242.
  9. Miller MA, Zachary JF. Mechanisms and morphology of cellular injury, adaptation, and death.  In:  McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:25, 28-29.
  10. Palmer MV, Olsen SC. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant captive American bison (Bison bison). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:512-515.
  11. Pillitteri CA, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama). Vet Pathol. 2013;50(1):177.
  12. Smith GW. Hepatic lipidosis. In:  Smith BP, eds. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2015:861-866.
  13. Trott KA, et al. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in the backyard chicken: a retrospective histopathologic case series. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(4):787.
  14. Wieland M, Mann S, Hafner-Marx A, Ignatius A, Metzner M. Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves. Vet Pathol. 2017;54(3):467-474.


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