JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

October 2017

P-V19

 

Signalment (AFIP# 2237950):  Ten-year-old female rhesus monkey

HISTORY:  Tissue from a rhesus monkey that was inoculated intramuscularly with an infectious agent as a part of a research project.  Multifocally the lungs were wet and tan to red. Lymphoid tissue and thymus were markedly reduced in size.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung:  There is mild to moderate patchy to diffuse consolidation throughout the section with multifocal alveolar emphysema and perivascular edema.  Alveolar septa are diffusely and mildly to moderately expanded by macrophages, fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophilic beaded fibrillar material (fibrin), homogenous eosinophilic fluid (edema), and there is multifocal necrosis and loss of type I pneumocytes with replacement by cuboidal epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes hyperplasia).  Many alveolar lumina contain 1-2 multinucleated giant syncytial cells that are up to 90 um in diameter, with abundant granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm and multiple nuclei (up to 25 nuclei). Syncytial cells are admixed with low numbers of alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and fewer neutrophils, fibrin and edema.  Alveolar lumina also less frequently and multifocally contain eosinophilic flocculent aggregates of fungal trophic forms, within macrophages as well as extracellular, characterized by: round shape, 1-2 um in diameter, thin eosinophilic cell wall and clear interior.  Bronchiolar epithelium is mildly, multifocally lost or attenuated, with mild goblet cell hyperplasia.  Bronchiolar lumina contain small amounts of mucin, sloughed epithelial cells, fibrin and edema.  The tunica adventitia and surrounding vascular interstitium is mildly expanded by edema with ectatic lymphatics, and contains a few multifocal aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Pneumonia, interstitial, lymphohistiocytic, chronic, diffuse, moderate, with viral syncytial cells, perivascular edema, and fungal trophic forms consistent with Pneumocystis spp., rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), nonhuman primate. 

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Simian lentiviral pneumonia

CAUSE:  Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

SYNONYMS:  Giant cell pneumonia

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:   

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:  Immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, transmission electron microscopy

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES:

Pneumonia in macaques:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Examples of lentiviruses of family Retroviridae:

REFERENCES:

  1. Assaf BT, Knight HL, Miller AD. Rhesus cytomegalovirus (Macacine herpesvirus-3) associated facial neuritis in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Vet Pathol. 2015;52(1):217-23.
  2. Baskar P, Narayan O, McClure HM, Hildreth JE. Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmPBj 1.9 induces multinucleated giant cell formation in human peripheral blood monocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994;10:73-80.
  3. Brady AG, Carville ALL. Digestive disease of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012:606.
  4. Fahey MA, Westmoreland SV. Nervous system disorders of nonhuman primates and research models.       In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012: 759-762.
  5. Kramer JA, Bielitzki J. Integumentary system diseases of nonhuman primates.  In: Abee CR, Mansfield      K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA:      Elsevier; 2012: 571.
  6. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015: 243-256.
  7. Lowenstein LJ, Osborn KG. Respiratory System Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012: 413-481.
  8. Pritzker KPH, Kessler MJ. Arthritis, muscle, adipose tissue, and bone disease of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012: 649-650.
  9. Sasseville VG, Hotchkill CE, Levesque PC, Mankowski JL. Hematopoietic, cardiovascular, lymphoid and    mononuclear phagocyte systems of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2012: 373. 
  10. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. 2nd ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier;   2012: 63-70.
  11. Wednesday Slide Conference online: 2013; Conference 20, case 4. Joint Pathology Center Web site. https://www.askjpc.org/wsco/wsc_showcase2.php?id=698.  Accessed October 18, 2017.

 

 

 


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