JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
OCTOBER 2018
D-V03 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #1803015):  6-day-old puppy 

HISTORY:  This puppy presented with severe diarrhea.  The puppy had been inoculated orally with an infectious agent 2 days previously.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Small intestine:  Diffusely affecting greater than 95% of the small intestine, intestinal villi are blunted, fused, and occasionally lined by attenuated epithelial cells.  Multifocally there is loss of villus epithelium and replacement with small amounts of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) and few viable and degenerate neutrophils.  Villus capillaries are moderately congested.  Crypt epithelial cells have a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with large vesiculate nuclei and prominent nucleoli, and frequently pile up to 3 cells thick with increased numbers of mitotic figures (crypt hyperplasia) and rare individual necrotic cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Small intestine:  Villus atrophy, blunting and fusion, diffuse, marked, with necrosis, congestion, mild acute enteritis, and crypt hyperplasia, breed unspecified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Coronaviral enteritis

CAUSE:  Canine coronavirus (CCV)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

Enteric form:

Pantropic form:

Respiratory form:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Bovine coronavirus (winter dysentery)

Bovine

Gastroenteritis, coronavirus implicated

Canine coronavirus

Canine

Strain dependent: Enteritis, pantropic, respiratory

Feline coronavirus (FIP)

Feline

Peritonitis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, panophthalmitis; granulomatous vasculitis

Feline enteric coronavirus

Feline

Diarrhea in kittens

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)

Mouse

Hepatic necrosis, enteritis, encephalomyelitis; syncytia formation

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)

Porcine

Gastroenteritis

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus

Porcine

Vomiting, wasting and encephalomyelitis (usually no diarrhea)

Porcine epidemic diarrhea

Porcine

Gastroenteritis (western Europe, similar to TGE)

Rat coronavirus

Rat

Rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonitis in young

Rat sialodacryoadenitis virus

Rat

Sialodacryoadenitis, porphyrin released from damaged harderian gland, squamous metaplasia of ducts

Avian infectious bronchitis

Chickens

Tracheobronchitis, nephritis

Bluecomb (turkeys)

Turkeys

Enteritis, cyanosis of the comb

Rabbit coronavirus

Rabbits

Enteritis, myocarditis

SARS virus

Humans

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE)

Ferrets

Profuse, green mucoid diarrhea in adults; thought to be a coronavirus

Systemic Coronavirus-Associated Disease

Ferrets

Pyogranulomatous inflammation similar to FIP in cats within numerous organs

REFERENCES:

  1. Decaro N, Buonavoglia C. An update on canine coronaviruses: viral evolution and pathobiology. Vet Micro. 2008;132:221-234.
  2. Garner MM, Ramsell K, Morera N, Juan-Salles C, Jimenez J. Ardiaca M, Montesinos A, Teifke JP, Lohr CV, Evermann JF, Baszler TV, Nordhausen RW, Wise AG, Maes RK, Kiupel M. Clinicopathologic features of a systemic coronavirus-associated disease resembling feline infectious peritonitis in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:236-246.
  3. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery and peritoneal cavity. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2017:375.
  4. Greene CE, Decaro N. Canine Viral Enteritis. In Greene CE, eds. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012:76-79.
  5. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, eds. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015:146-151, 576.


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |