JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-P07 (NP)

SIGNALMENT (JPC# 1752289):  Dog

HISTORY:  This dog had splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  (H-P07a) Spleen:  Diffusely splenic red pulp is effaced by numerous macrophages, moderate numbers of plasma cells, fewer lymphocytes, and occasional neutrophils that fill and expand the cords and red pulp vascular spaces, and replace and obscure the white pulp, trabeculae, and capsule.  Macrophages are up to 40 um in diameter and contain numerous 2-4 um, ovoid, intracytoplasmic amastigotes with an eccentric, round to ovoid, basophilic nucleus and a <1 um, linear, basophilic, kinetoplast.  Multifocally, there are scattered random areas of karyorrhectic and cellular debris (lytic necrosis) containing numerous viable and degenerate neutrophils admixed with variable amounts of an eosinophilic beaded to fibrillar fibrin.  There is multifocal histiocytic erythrophagocytosis and hemosiderosis, and rare megakaryocytes.

(H-P07a) Liver:  Diffusely sinusoids, portal and periportal areas, and vessels are expanded by numerous macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fewer neutrophils.  Most macrophages are filled with protozoal organisms as previously described in the spleen.  Diffusely, there is centrilobular to midzonal disruption, attenuation and loss of hepatic cords.  In these areas hepatocytes are rarely degenerate or necrotic, there are increased numbers of hemosiderin laden Kupfer cells, and central veins occasionally contain fibrin thrombi.

(H-P07b) Price Giemsa:  Intracytoplasmic amastigotes have bright blue nuclei, purple kinetoplasts and light blue cytoplasm.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:

  1. Spleen:  Splenitis, histiocytic and plasmacytic, subacute, diffuse, severe, with multifocal necrosis and numerous intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes, breed unspecified, canine.
  2. Liver: Hepatitis, histiocytic, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with multifocal hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis and loss, and numerous intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Splenic and hepatic leishmaniasis

CAUSE:  Leishmania spp. (differentials include L. infantum/chagasi, L. donovani)

CONDITION:  Visceral leishmaniosis

SYNONMYNS:  Kala-azar, Dum dum fever

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Gross:

Microscopic:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:

  1. Aresu L, Benali S, Ferro S, et al. Light and electron microscopic analysis of consecutive renal biopsy specimens from Leishmania-seropositive dogs. Vet Pathol. 2013; 50(5):753-60.
  2. Cheville NF. Ultrastructural Pathology: An Introduction to Interpretation, 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2009: 535-536.
  3. Cooper BJ, Valentine BA. Muscle and tendon. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier; 2016:240.
  4. Ferri F, Zini E, Auriemma E et al. Splenitis in 33 dogs. Vet Pathol. 2017; 54(1): 147-154.
  5. Ferro S, Palmieri C, Cavicchioli L, De Zan G, Aresu L, Benali SL. Leishmania amastigotes in neoplastic cells of 3 non-histiocytic canine tumors. Vet Pathol. 2013;50(5):749-752.
  6. Kegler K, Habierski A, Hahn K et al. Vaginal canine transmissible venereal tumour associated with intra-tumoral Leishmania spp amastigotes in an asymptomatic female dog. J Comp Pathol. 2013; 149: 156-161.
  7. Koutinas AF, Koutinas CK. Pathologic mechanisms underlying the clinical findings in canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(2):527-538.
  8. Márquez M, Pedregosa JR, López J, Marco-Salazar P, Fondevila D, Pumarola M. Leishmania amastigotes in the central nervous system of a naturally infected dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013; 25(1):142-146.
  9. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier; 2016:663-664.
  10. Menezes RC, Maderia MF, Ferreira LC et al. Cell-block immunohistochemistry of bone marrow aspirates: a novel tool to improve the diagnosis of leishmanial infection in dogs. J Comp Pathol.  2016; 154: 157-160.
  11. Nascimento MSL, Albuquerque TDR, Nascimento AFS et al. Impairment of interleukin-17A expression in canine visceral leishmaniosis is correlated with reduced interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. J Comp Pathol. 2015; 153
  12. Ordeix L, dos S Silva, JE, Llull J et al. Histological and immunological description of the leishmanin skin test in Ibizan hounds. J Comp Pathol. 2018; 158: 56-65.
  13. Rosa FA, Leite HAC, Braga ET, et al. Cardiac lesions in 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Vet Pathol. 2013; 51(3): 603-606.
  14. Scruggs JL, Weber KA. Pathology in practice: Leishmaniasis in a military working dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2017; 251(12): 1391-1393.
  15. Torrent E, Pastor J, Fresno L et al. Laryngeal granuloma due to Leishmania spp infection in a dog. J Comp Pathol.  2018;156:6-11.
  16. Trainor KE, Porter BF, Logan KS et al. Eight cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis in texas.  Vet Pathol.  2010; 47(6): 1076-1081.
  17. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol. 3. 6th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier; 2016: 174-175.
  18. Wilcock BP, Njaa BL. Special senses. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier; 2016: 503. 


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