JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Signalment: (JPC#2456580): Adult castrated male pig
HISTORY: Clusters of bubbles along a 20 cm length of distal small intestine were present at necropsy.
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION: Small intestine: Diffusely, lymphatics in the submucosa and tunica serosa are moderately to markedly dilated up to 2 mm in diameter by clear space (edema) and elevate the overlying mucosa. Multifocally, cystic lymphatics are separated by collagen bundles, which are are expanded and infiltrated by moderate numbers of Langhans and foreign body type multinucleated giant cells, fewer epithelioid macrophages, eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema which occasionally infiltrate the tunica muscularis and serosa.
MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Small intestine: Emphysema, submucosal and intralymphatic, diffuse, marked, with multifocal granulomatous and eosinophilic lymphangitis, breed not specified, porcine.
CONDITION: Emphysema intestinalis; intestinal emphysema; pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis; pneumotosis cystica of the intestine
- Gas-filled cystic lymphatics in the submucosa, tunica muscularis and mesentery
- Infrequent, incidental finding in healthy weaned pigs found at time of slaughter
- Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli have been isolated from lesions, but not consistently
TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:
TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:
- Thin walled, gas filled cystic structures in intestine wall and on serosal surface
- Numerous cystic lymphatics ranging from less than 1 mm to several cm in diameter; primarily in submucosa; seen grossly in the tunica serosa
- Occurs most often in the wall of the small intestine; large intestine, mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes may be also involved
TYPICAL MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:
- Gas-filled, dilated lymphatics of the lamina propria, submucosa, tunica muscularis, subserosa, mesentery or mesenteric lymph nodes
- A granulomatous to mixed inflammatory reaction may be present in surrounding submucosa
ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:
- Fluid-filled lymphatics (edema or lymphatic obstruction)
- Empty parasitic cysts
- Congenital anomalies (remnant cysts of reproductive origins)
- Reported in rabbits, sheep, chickens and laboratory rats
- Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:405.
- Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:87.