JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
August 2018
D-B03 (NP)

Signalment (JPC Accession # 1782711):   A quail

HISTORY:  Tissue from a large flock of quail that suffered a loss of 20-50 birds over a 2-week period.  The birds seemed to be fine at night and then were found dead the next morning.  Treatment with tetracycline in the drinking water for three days appeared to stop the deaths.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Small intestine: Multifocally and circumferentially, there is marked loss of normal mucosal villar architecture with replacement by a thick coagulum of necrotic debris, fibrin and hemorrhageand numerous colonies of 1x4 um bacilli that occasionally contain 1 um, oval, subterminal spores, high numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and fewer heterophils (diphtheritic membrane).  Adjacent less affected villi are multifocally eroded, ,ulcerated, blunted and/or fused, and remaining mucosal epithelial cells are often either brightly eosinophilic, angular and shrunken with pyknotic nuclei (necrosis) or swollen with microvacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration).  Multifocally expanding the remaining lamina propria or extending transmurally through the intestinal wall are numerous heterophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and erythrocytes, admixed with fibrin and edema.  Multifocally, adventitial vessels are markedly congested.   

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Small intestine:  Enteritis, ulcerative and necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, severe, with intralesional colonies of bacilli, quail, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Clostridial enteritis

CAUSE:  Clostridium colinum

CONDITION:  Ulcerative enteritis

SYNONYM:  Quail disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Abdul-Aziz T, Fletcher OJ, Barnes HJ. Avian Histopathology. 4th Jacksonville, FL: AAAP, Inc.; 2016:326.
  2. Beltran-Alcrudo D, Cardona C, McLellan L, et al. A Persistent Outbreak of Ulcerative Enteritis in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). Avian Diseases. 2008;52(3):531-6.
  3. Fulton RM. Ulcerative Enteritis. In: Boulianne M, ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: AAAP Inc.;2013:137-138.
  4. Shivaprasad HL, Uzal F, Kokka R, Fisher DJ, McClane BA, and Songer AG. Ulcerative Enteritis-Like Disease Associated with Clostridium perfringens Type A in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). Avian Diseases. 2008;52(4):635-40.
  5. Rood JI, Keyburn AL, Moore RJ. NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story. Avian Pathol. 2016;45(3):295-301.
  6. Songer JG, Uzal F. Ulcerative Enteritis. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press;2013:943-949.

 


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