JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-T01

Signalment (JPC #1617774):  A pig

HISTORY:  This animal was non-confinement raised and died acutely.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Diffusely affecting 60% of hepatic parenchyma there is submassive necrosis, characterized by disruption and loss of centrilobular and midzonal hepatic cords and replacement with abundant necrotic debris and hemorrhage.  Remaining hepatocytes are individualized, shrunken, and hypereosinophilic with pyknotic, karyorrhectic or karyolytic nuclei, and are admixed with moderate hemorrhage and few neutrophils.  Adjacent to areas of necrosis, there are few degenerate hepatocytes characterized by swollen cells with clear, vacuolated cytoplasm.  Centrilobular sinusoids are markedly congested.  Multifocally within portal areas, there are few lymphocytes, plasma cells, rare neutrophils, eosinophils, and mildly ectatic lymphatics that contain variable amounts of eosinophilic homogenous material (edema).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver:  Necrosis, acute, centrilobular to midzonal (submassive), diffuse, with multifocal hemorrhage and congestion, breed unspecified, porcine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Toxic hepatic necrosis

CAUSE:  Xanthium strumarium

CONDITION:  Cocklebur intoxication

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Microscopic:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Toxic plant causes of centrilobular necrosis in animals:

Plant Family

Species Affected

Toxic Principle

Characteristic Injury

Miscellaneous

Compositae

   Xanthium spp.

Cattle, pigs

Carboxyatractyloside

Centrilobular necrosis

Hypoglycemia and ascites occur in acute intoxication in pigs.

Myoporaceae

   Myoporum spp.

Sheep, cattle, horses, pigs

Furanosesquiterpenoid oils (ngaione)

Usually centrilobular to variable zonal necrosis

Sheep also develop pulmonary injury.

         

Leguminosae

   Cassia spp.

Cattle

Unknown

Centrilobular necrosis

Myocardial and skeletal muscle injuries predominate in Cassia occidentalis intoxication.

         

Ulmaceae

   Trema aspera

Trema tomentosa

Cattle, sheep, goats

Trematoxin (glycoside)

Centrilobular necrosis

Neuromuscular toxins also. Usually acute disease.

Solanaceae

  Cestrum parqui,      

  C. laevigatum  

  (not C. diurnum)

Cattle, sheep

Saponins

Centrilobular necrosis

Gallbladder edema and hemorrhage. Usually acute disease.

Asteraceae

   Tetradymia    

   glabrata

 

Wedelia glauca

 

Sheep

 

Ox, swine, goat, horse

Tetradymol

 

Wedelocide (atractyloside)

Centrilobular necrosis

Photosensitization is common.

 

VetPath 2013:50(3)

         

Cycadales

   Zamiaceae

   Cycadaceae

   Stangeriaceae

Cattle, sheep, goats, dogs

Methylazoxymethanol

Centrilobular necrosis, megalocytosis, cholestasis

Toxin split from nontoxic glycoside. Neurotoxins also present. Chronic ingestion causes paralysis in cattle.

Fabaceae

   Indigofera

   linnaei

Cattle, dogs

Indospicine

Centrilobular necrosis

Dogs can be intoxicated by eating meat from horses ingesting Indigofera.

Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae)

   Microcystis

  Aphanizomenon

Cattle, sheep, horses, goats, dogs

Microcystins and others

Centrilobular to massive necrosis

Blue-green algae are not considered to be plants but cyanobacteria. Multiple toxins are present and can cause death by neuromuscular injury

Table adapted from Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 6th ed., 2017, Web Table 8-1  Common Hepatotoxic Plants of Veterinary Importance

REFERENCES:

  1. Botha CJ, Lessing D, Rosemann M, van Wilpe E, Williams JH. Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014:26(5):640-645.
  2. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJV, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: Web Table 8-1.
  3. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and biliary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:116, 331.
  4. Giannitti F, Margineda CA, Cid MS, et al. Fatal Wedelia glauca intoxication in calves following natural exposure. Vet Pathol. 2013;50(3):530-533.
  5. Sebastian MM. Plants. In: Gupta RC, ed. Veterinary Toxicology, pp. 1121-1122. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2007:1121-1122.


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