JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-M15

Signalment (AFIP 2760643):  3-year-old military working dog

HISTORY:  This dog presented with vomiting and abdominal pain.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: 

  1. Pancreas: Replacing over 50% of the pancreatic parenchyma and extending into the peripancreatic adipose tissue are multifocal to coalescing areas of lytic necrosis, characterized by loss of cellular architecture and replacement with eosinophilic karyorrectic debris, fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema which are rimmed by degenerate neutrophils and macrophages.  Within the adjacent parenchyma, acinar cells are degenerate with swollen pale vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm or necrotic with shrunken hypereosinophilic cytoplasm with pyknotic nuclei and loss of zymogen granules.  Multifocally, blood vessels are incorporated within these necrotic areas and the vascular tunics are transmurally expanded by small amounts of necrotic cell debris, fibrin, hemorrhage and edema (vasculitis); few vessels contain fibrin thrombi. Areas of necrosis, inflammation, and hemorrhage also extend into the peripancreatic adipose tissue, where adipocytes at the periphery exhibit loss of cellular detail (fat necrosis) and replacement by basophilic finely granular mineral and acicular cholesterol clefts (fat saponification).
  2. Lymph node: Within the subcapsular and medullary sinuses, there is moderate draining hemorrhage and edema, and macrophages often contain light brown granular to globular intracytoplasmic pigment (hemosiderin). 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Pancreas:  Pancreatitis, necrotizing, acute, multifocal, moderate, with peripancreatic fat necrosis and saponification, breed not specified, canine. 
  2. Lymph node: Draining hemorrhage, chronic-active, moderate.

ETIOLOGY:  Unknown

CONDITION:  Acute pancreatic necrosis

SYNONYMS: Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Causes of pancreatitis:

REFERENCES:

  1. Boulianne M, Brash ML, Charlton BR, et al. Avian Diseases Manual. Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc; 2013.
  2. Brady AG, Carville Angela AL. Digestive System Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Nonhuman Primates Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:615.
  3. Brenner K, Harkin KR, Andrews GA, Kennedy G. Juvenile Pancreatic Atrophy in Greyhounds: 12 Cases (1995-2000). J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23:67-71.
  4. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJ, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:465-468.
  5. El-Bahrawy A, Zaid A, Sunden Y,et al. Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis in Chickens after Experimental Infection with 9a5b Newcastle Disease Virus Mutant Isolate. J Comp Pathol. 2015 Nov;153(4):315-23.
  6. Jubb KVF. Pancreas. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:357-361.
  7. Ruaux CG. Feline Pancreatitis: Diagnosis and Treatmen. In: Ettinger SJ, Felmen EC, Cote E eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1688-1693.
  8. Steiner JM. Canine Pancreatitis: Diagnosis and Treatment. In: Ettinger SJ, Felmen EC, Cote E eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1683-1688.
  9. Vrolyk V, Wobeser BK, Al-Dissi AN, Carr A, Singh B. Lung Inflammation Associated With Clinical Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in Dogs. Vet Pathol. 2017 Jan;54(1):129-140.
  10. Zini E, Ferro S, Lunardi F, et al. Exocrine pancreas in cats with diabetes mellitus. Vet Pathol. 2016:53(1):145-152.
  11. Zoia A, Drigo M. Association Between Pancreatitis and Immune-mediated Haemolytic Anemia in Cats: A Cross-sectional Study. J Comp Pathol. 2017 May;156(4):384-388.


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