JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
August 2018
D-B16

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2329499):  A 3-month-old male Yorkshire crossbred feeder pig

HISTORY:  Eight pigs died acutely in a pen of 50 pigs which were experiencing bloody diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss which was refractory to antibiotic therapy.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Colon:  There are multifocal to coalescing areas of hemorrhage and necrosis (lytic and coagulative) of superficial mucosal epithelium admixed with thin mat of fibrin, cellular and karyorrhectic debris, degenerate neutrophils, and colonies of basophilic bacteria.  Coagulative necrosis multifocally extends into crypts and is characterized by retention of architecture with more brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm of enterocytes.  Crypts are diffusely elongated up to 2-3 times normal, mutlifocally ectatic, containing an amphophilic to pale basophilic fibrillary material (mucus) (crypt hyperplasia).  Multifocally, crypts also contain hyperplastic goblet cells, and occasionally are ectatic and contain mucus, neutrophils and necrotic cellular debris (crypt abscess)  Blood vessels within the lamina propria, submucosa, and mesentery are congested, and multifocally, small vessels within the mucosa and submucosa contain a fibrillar to finely granular to hyalinized eosinophilic material (fibrin thrombi).  There are multiple ectactic, mucus filled crypts located within a Peyer’s patch (focal crypt herniation).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Colon:  Colitis, necrohemorrhagic, acute, diffuse, moderate, with crypt and goblet cell hyperplasia and fibrin thrombi, Yorkshire cross (Sus scrofa domestica), porcine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Brachyspiral colitis

CAUSE:  Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

CONDITION:  Swine dysentery

SYNONYMS:  Vibriotic dysentery, bloody scours, bloody dysentery, black scours, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:  (bloody diarrhea in swine)

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Burrough ER. Swine Dysentery: Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis of a Reemerging Disease. Vet Pathol. 2017;54(1): 22-31.
  2. Chander Y, Primus A, Oliveira S, Gebhart CJ. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel strongly hemolytic Brachyspira species, provisionally designated “Brachyspira hampsonii”. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24(5):903-10.
  3. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:403-404.
  4. Glavits R, Ivanics E, Thuma A, et al. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks. Avian Pathol. 2011;40(1):23-31.
  5. Rohde F, Majzoub-Altweck M, Falkenau A, et al. Occurrence of dysentery-like diarrhoea associated with Brachyspira suanatina infection on a German fattening pig farm. Vet Rec. 2018;1: 1-5.
  6. Uzal, FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter, JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:115-116; 181-183.
  7. Warneke HL, Kinyon JM, Power LP, Burrough ER, Frana TS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of Brachyspira species isolated from swine, including the newly described “Brachyspira hampsonii.” J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014;26(5):635-639.
  8. Wilberts BL, Arruda PH, Kinyon JM, Madson DM, Frana TS, Burrough ER. Comparison of lesion severity, distribution, and colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery following oral inoculation with “Brachyspira hampsonii” or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(6):1096-1108.
  9. Wilberts BL, Warneke HL, Power LP, Kinyon JM, Burrough ER. Comparison of culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and “Brachyspira hampsonii” in pig feces. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014;27(1):41-46.
  10. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:165-166.
  11. Zeeh F, De Luca S, Nicholson P, et al. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae detection in the large intestine of slaughtered pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Jan(1): 56-63.


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