JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-V06

Signalment:  (JPC# 1782647):  Two-day-old piglet

HISTORY:  This piglet had profuse, watery feces and vomited milk curd.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Small intestine with attached mesentery:  Diffusely and circumferentially there is a loss of normal intestinal villar architecture with a dilated lumen and thinned intestinal wall characterized by villi that are severely blunted, shortened, and fused with marked crypt loss, reducing the ratio of villus height to crypt depth to less than 1:1.  The mucosal lining is reduced to a single layer of attenuated basophilic enterocytes, and remaining crypts are lined by either flattened, attenuated epithelium, or hypertrophic epithelial cells that occasionally pile up and contain a moderate amount of foamy basophilic cytoplasm, a large irregularly ovoid nucleus with finely stippled chromatin, one prominent nucleolus and few mitotic figures (regeneration).  Multifocally crypt lumina contain small amounts of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) and few macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells (crypt abscess). Diffusely, the lamina propria is moderately expanded by lymphocytes and plasma cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Small intestine:  Villous necrosis and loss, diffuse, acute, severe with multifocal crypt regeneration and crypt abscesses, breed unspecified, porcine.

ETIOLOGY:  Porcine coronavirus (alphacoronavirus 1)

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Coronaviral enteritis

CONDITION:  Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:  (For diarrhea in piglets)

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Grunberg W. Veterinary Medicine A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, and Goats. 11th Vol. 1. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:391.
  2. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery and peritoneal cavity. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2017:401-402.
  3. Ha Y, Lee YH, Ahn KK, Kim B, Chae C. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by prenatal porcine circovirus 2 infection and postnatal parvovirus infection or immunostimulation. Vet Pathol. 2008; 45(1):842-848.
  4. Huang Y, Gauvreau H, Harding J. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012; 24(1): 96-106.
  5. Lopez L, et al. Antigen-capture blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a baculovirus recombinant antigen to differentiate transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine respiratory coronavirus antibodies. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009; 21: 598-608.
  6. Madson DM, Arruda PH, Magstadt DR, Burrough ER, et al. Characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate US/Iowa/18984/2013 infection in 1-day-old cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived piglets. Vet Pathol. 2016; 53(1):44-52.
  7. Niederwerder MC, Nietfeld JC, Bai J, Peddireddi L, et al. Tissue localization, shedding, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016; 28(6):671-678.
  8. Saif LJ, et al. Coronaviruses. In: Zimmerman JJ, Karriker LA, Ramirez A, Schwatz KJ, Stevenson GW eds. Diseases of Swine. 10th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012: 503-514.
  9. Shoup D, Swayne D, Jackwood D, Saif L. Immunohistochemistry of transmissible gastroenteritis virus antigens in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1996; 8:161-167.
  10. Stevenson GW, et al. Emergence of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013; 25(5):649-54.
  11. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, eds. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015:113-115, 147-153.
  12. Vitosh-Stillman S, Loy JD, Broderson B, Kelling C, et al. Experimental infection of conventional nursing pigs and their dams with Porcine Deltacoronavirus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016; 28(5):486-497.
  13. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial disease. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2017:203-205.


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