JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

October 2017

P-V07

 

Signalment (JPC #2237801):  Adult female king snake

HISTORY:  This is one of six snakes in a private collection of over 250 snakes that developed vomiting and runny yellow feces over a period of 6 months.  Three snakes died.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung:  Diffusely faveolar septa are markedly expanded up to 100 microns by edema, fibrin, congestion, and low numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophils.  Multifocally pneumocytes lining faveolar lumina are lined by plump cuboidal epithelial cells that are hyperplastic (type II pneumocyte hyperplasia).  Rare pneumocytes are necrotic characterized by hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknosis or karyorrhexis, or pneumocytes form 30 um diameter syncytial cells with up to 10 nuclei.  Pneumocytes and syncytial cells contain variably sized and shaped 3-5 micron eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies.   Multifocally, faveolar lumina are variably occluded by many degenerate heterophils, occasional macrophages, and sloughed epithelial cells admixed with abundant cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis). The respiratory epithelium lining the septal apices and central lumen is diffusely hyperplastic, piling up to 7 cell layers thick. Epithelial cells are often swollen and vacuolated (degenerate) and contain similar intracytoplasmic inclusions. The pleura is diffusely expanded up to 1 mm by edema, congested vessels, low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and heterophils. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Pneumonia, interstitial, proliferative and lymphohistiocytic, diffuse, moderate, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, syncytial cells, and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies, etiology consistent with Ferlavirus, King Snake (Lampropeltis spp.), reptile.

ETIOLOGY:  Ferlavirus

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Ferlaviral pneumonia

SYNONYMS:  Ophidian (snake) paramyxovirus (OPMV), Viper pneumonitis virus, Fer-de-lance virus

GENERAL DISCUSSION:  

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:   

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

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  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol. 2. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:116.
  3. Hyndman TH, Shilton CM, Marschang RE. Paramyxoviruses in reptiles: A review. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:200-213.
  4. Jacobson ER, Adams HP, Geisbert TW, Tucker SJ, Hall BJ, Homer BL. Pulmonary lesions in experimental ophidian paramyxovirus pneumonia of Aruba Island rattlesnakes, Crotalus unicolor. Vet Pathol. 1997;34(5):450-9.
  5. Jacobson ER, Origgi F, Pessier AP, Lamirande EW, et. al. Paramyxovirus infection in caiman lizards (Draecena guianensis). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13(2):143-51.
  6. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1997:307-310.
  7. Kolesnikovas CK, Grego KF, Rameh de Albuquerque LC, et al. Ophidian paramyxovirus in Brazilian vipers (Bothrops alternates). Vet Rec. 2006;159(12):390-2.
  8. Kurath G, Batts WN, Ahne W, Winton JR. Complete genome sequence of Fer-de-Lance virus reveals a novel gene in reptilian paramyxoviruses. J Virol. 2004;78(4):2045-56.
  9. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. London, UK: Academic Press; 2017: 339-340.
  10. Marschang RE. Clinical Virology. In: Divers SJ, Mader DR, ed. Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 2005:27,30,38-42.
  11. Orós J, Sicilia J, Torrent A, et. al. Immunohistochemical detection of ophidian paramyxovirus in snakes in the Canary Islands. Vet Rec. 2001;149(1):21-3.
  12. Starck JM, Neul A, Schmidt V, Kolb T, Franz-Guess S, Balcecean D, Pees M. Morphology and Morphometry of the Lung in Corn Snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) Infected with Three Different Strains ofFerlavirus. J Comp Pathol. 2017 May;156(4):419-435.
  13. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research Volume 2: Diseases. 2nd San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:42.
  14. West G, Garner M, Raymond J, Latimer KS, Nordhausen R. Meningoencephlalitis in a Boelen’s python (Morelia Boeleni) associated with paramyxovirus infection. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32(3):360-5.

 

 


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