JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

October 2017

P-V06

 

Signalment (JPC # 4066069):  Tissue from an ox.

HISTORY:  Unknown

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung: Diffusely affecting 100% of the section bronchi and bronchioles, are expanded by an exudate composed of viable and degenerate neutrophils, eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, alveolar macrophages, sloughed epithelial cells, fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema. Bronchiolar and bronchial epithelium are characterized by one or more of the following changes: epithelial necrosis, attenuation, hyperplasia (up to 8 cell layers thick), and viral syncytial cell formation (with up to 8 nuclei) with cells budding off the epithelium into the lumen. Multifocally, there are 3-6 um, round to oval, brightly eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in respiratory epithelium and syncytial cells. Alveolar lumina are variably expanded by moderate to abundant amounts of fibrin, edema, hemorrhage, small amounts of necrotic debris, neutrophils, and  macrophages, which are admixed with viral syncytial cells.  Alveolar septa are moderately expanded by eosinophilic beaded fibrillar material (fibrin), macrophages, fewer neutrophils, syncytial cells, hemorrhage and edema, or replaced with eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (septal necrosis).  There is type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. Interlobular septa and visceral pleura are moderately expanded by hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, and in the perivascular connective tissue there are also markedly ectatic lymphatic vessels.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, suppurative and histiocytic, subacute, multifocal, moderate, with bronchiolar viral syncytial cells and epithelial eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusions, breed unspecified, bovine.

ETIOLOGY DIAGNOSIS:  Paramyxoviral pneumonia

CAUSE:  Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

(Acute lesions): 1-8 days post infection

(Subacute lesions): > 8 days post infection

ULTRASTRUCTURE:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:

  1. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier limited; 2016:539-541. 
  2. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Grunberg W. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, and Goats. Vol 1. 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier limited; 2017:946-951.
  3. Klem TB, Tollersrud T, Osteras O, Stokstad M. Association between the level of antibodies in bulk tank milk and bovine respiratory syncytial virus exposure in the herd. Veterinary Record. 2014;175(2):47.
  4. Moore SJ, O’Dea MA, Perkins N, O’Hara AJ. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2014;27(1):6-17.
  5. O’Neill R, Mooney J, Connaghan E, Furphy C, Graham DA. Patterns of detection of respiratory viruses in nasal swabs from calves in Ireland: a retrospective study. Veterinary Record. 2014;175(14):351.
  6. Sacco RE, McGill JL, Pillatzki AE, Palmer MV, Ackermann MR. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle. Vet Pathol. 2014;51(2):427-436.
  7. Theurer ME, Larson RL, White BJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle. JAVMA. 2015;246(1)126-142.
  8. Walz PH, Newcomer BW, Riddell KP, Scruggs DW, Cortese VS. Virus detection by PCR following vaccination of naive calves with intranasal or injectable multivalent modified-live viral vaccines. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2017;online first.
  9. Wilkins PA, Woolums AR. Diseases of the respiratory system. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier limited; 2015:587-591.
  10. Windeyer MC, Leslie KE, Godden SM, et al. Association of bovine respiratory disease or vaccination with serologic response in dairy heifer calves up to three months of age. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2015;76(3):239-245.
  11. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:208-209.

 

 

 


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |