JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
August 2018
D-B18

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2333212):  Ferret

HISTORY:  D-B18a/b: Bruxism, intermittent vomiting, and dark, tarry stools.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: D-B18a

  1. Stomach, fundus: Multifocally affecting 90% of the section, parietal and chief cells are replaced by increased numbers of mucous neck cells with rare mitotic figures (mucous cell metaplasia and hyperplasia).  Multifocally, nodular aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells expand the lamina propria, surround and separate gastric glands, and extend into the muscularis mucosa and submucosa. Mucous cell metaplasia is most prominent in areas of inflammation. There are lightly basophilic spiral shaped bacilli multifocally adhered to the luminal epithelium or within gastric glands.
  2. Liver: Low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrate periportal connective tissue. Multifocally, there is scattered yellow-brown globular pigment (hemosiderin) within Kupffer cells which are arranged in small nodules lining sinusoids (micronodular hemosiderosis), and hepatocytes occasionally contain single clear vacuoles which peripherally displace the nucleus (lipid-type vacuolar change). 
  3. Spleen: Multifocally, the red pulp is expanded by mild extramedullary hematopoiesis; no significant lesions.

D-B18b Warthin Starry 4.0 Stomach: Numerous 1x3um, slightly curved, argyrophilic bacilli are present on the mucosal surface and within gastric glands.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Stomach, fundus: Gastritis, lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, moderate, with moderate mucous cell metaplasia and hyperplasia and superficial argyrophilic curved bacilli, etiology consistent with Helicobacter sp., ferret (Mustela putorius furo), mustelid.
  2. Liver: Hepatitis, periportal, lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, minimal.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Helicobacterial gastritis

CAUSE:  Helicobacter mustelae

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2985003):  1-year-old male ICR mouse

HISTORY:  D-B18c: This mouse was jaundiced and died shortly before a necropsy was performed.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver: Multifocally there are moderate portal and periportal infiltrates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and fewer histiocytes.  There are markedly increased numbers of small caliber bile ducts lined by dysplastic epithelium with moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis and vesicular nuclei (bile duct hyperplasia).  Rarely, bile ducts are lined by attenuated epithelium and contain luminal sloughed cellular and proteinaceous debris.  Multifocally, low numbers of individual hepatocytes througout the section are shrunken with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei (necrosis/apoptosis).  Multifocally and most prominenlty surrounding areas of portal inflammation hepatocytes demonstrate cytomegaly, karyomegaly and occasional bi-nucleation with the presnce of multiple nucleoli and markedly coarse chromatin.  Multifocally, hepatocytes are swollen with microvacuolated, lacy cytoplasm (glycogen-type vacuolar change).  Multifocally within portal areas lymphatics are expanded by pale eosinophilic fluid (edema).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver: Cholangiohepatitis, lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic, multifocal, moderate, with marked bile duct hyperplasia and dysplasia, hepatocyte necrosis and karyomegaly, ICR mouse, rodent.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Helicobacterial hepatitis

CAUSE:  Helicobacter hepaticus

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

 ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Mouse:

 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 7, 55-58, 101, 113, 139, 182-183, 196, 203, 279.
  2. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal vacity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:340, 363.
  3. Gill J, Haydon TG, Rawdon TG, et. al. Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter trogontum: infectious causes of abortion in sheep. Jour Vet Diag Invest. 2016;28(3):225-234.
  4. Laing ST, Merriam D, Shock BC, Mills S, Spinner A, Reader R, Hartigan-O’Connor DJ. Idiopathic colitis in rhesus macaques is associated with dysbiosis, abundant enterochromaffin cells and altered T-cell cytokine expression.  Vet Pathol. 2018; Jan 1:300985818780449. doi: 10.1177/0300985818780449. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Simmons J, Gibson S. Bacterial and mycotic diseases of nonhuman primates.  In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases, Vol. 2.  2nd ed.  Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2012:143-145.
  6. Swennes AG, Fox JG. Bacterial and mycoplasmal diseases.  In: Fox JG, Marini RP. Biology and diseases of the ferret.  3rd ed.  Ames, IA: Wiley; 2014: 529-534.
  7. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:52, 55, 58.


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