JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

September 2016

I- M24 (NP)

 

Signalment (JPC# 21474-27):  Male dog, breed unspecified

HISTORY:  This dog had gynecomastia, alopecia, hyperpigmentation, and hyperkeratosis.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin and mammary gland:  Diffusely, there is mild epidermal and follicular hyperplasia with mild orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis.  There is atrophy of the adnexal structures characterized by decreased size and number of sebaceous glands and a paucity of hair follicles.  Hair follicles are often ectatic with abundant lamellations of keratin (follicular keratosis), lack hair shafts, and are confined to the superficial dermis at the level of the sebaceous glands (hairless telogen phase).  There is increased dermal collagen.  Within the superficial dermis, there are few melano-macrophages (pigmentary incontinence) and apocrine glands are often mildly ectatic.  Multifocally, the underlying mammary tissue is expanded by variably sized ectatic ducts that are expanded up to 8 mm in diameter and lined by cuboidal to attenuated epithelial cells with rare apical blebbing and occasionally pile up to 3-4 cells deep (hyperplasia), and form arborizing papillary projections supported by fine fibrovascular stroma.  The ectatic ducts contain variable amounts of eosinophilic finely granular material (secretory product).  Multifocally, the stroma of the mammary gland contains few lymphocytes, plasma cells, and rare macrophages. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:

  1. Haired skin: Atrophy, follicular, multifocal, moderate, with dermal fibrosis, telogenization, follicular ectasia, epidermal hyperplasia and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, breed unspecified, canine.
  2. Mammary gland: Hyperplasia, intraductular and papillary, diffuse, moderate with mild subacute mastitis.

CAUSE:  Hyperestrogenism secondary to Sertoli cell tumor

CONDITION:  Gynecomastia

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:

  1. Bakthavatchalu V, Muthupalani S, Marini RP, Fox JG. Endocrinopathy in aging ferrets. Vet Pathol. 2016;53(2):349-365.
  2. Fox JG, Marini RP. Biology and diseases of the Ferret. 3rd Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2014:377-394.
  3. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Skin Diseases of the Dog & Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell; 2005:490-494.
  4. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:1061-1062.
  5. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2016: 588-591.
  6. Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL. Small Animal Dermatology. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:531-535, 853.
  7. Scott DW. Excessive trichilemmal keratinisation (flame follicles) in endocrine skin disorders of the dog. Vet Derm. 2008:40(1).
  8. Tavassoli FA, Eusebi V. Tumors of the mammary gland. In: Silverberg SG, Garner WA, Sobin LH, eds. AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology. 4th series. fascicle 10. Washington DC: American Registry of Pathology; 2009:371-381.


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