JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
December 2017
U-B02

SIGNALMENT (JPC # 2132377):  A foal

HISTORY:  This foal died acutely.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Multifocally and randomly, centered on and effacing glomeruli within the cortex, are numerous 250-500um  microabscesses that occasionally extend into the adjacent interstitium, tubules and vessels, as well as into the medulla.  Microabscesses are composed of abundant eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) admixed with numerous degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibrin, hemorrhage, edema and large colonies of basophilic, 1x2um coccobacilli.  Renal tubules are multifocally, mildly ectatic and renal tubular epithelium has one or more of the following changes: degeneration characterized by swollen and vacuolated cytoplasm, necrosis characterized by hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and shrunken pyknotic nuclei; tubule lumina contain variable amounts of debris and proteinaceous fluid.  Multifocally, blood vessels are lined by moderately hypertrophied  (reactive) endothelial cells and the interstitium is congested with multifocal areas of hemorrhage.  Diffusely, the capsule is expanded up to 500um by fibrin, edema, hemorrhage and small numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, fewer macrophages and rare neutrophils.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:   Nephritis, embolic, suppurative, subacute,  multifocal, moderate, with large colonies of coccobacilli and tubular degeneration and necrosis Thoroughbred, equine

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Renal Actinobacillosis

CAUSE:  Actinobacillus equuli      

CONDITION:  Sleepy foal disease; septicemia of foals; navel-ill; joint-ill

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Acute septicemia/synovitis/arthritis (due to failure of passive transfer): 

Embolic suppurative nephritis:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Disease-causing Actinobacillus sp.:

REFERENCES: 

  1. Adu-Addai B, Smedley RC, Mullaney TP. Pathology in practice. A equuli septicemia in a neonatal foal.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  2014 Dec 15;245(12):1339-41.
  2. Breshears MA, Confer AW. The urinary system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017:671-672.
  3. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:432-433,452.
  4. Fenwick BW, Woolums AR. Pasteurellaceae: Actinobacillus. In: McVey DS, Kennedy M, Chengappa MM, eds. Veterinary Microbiology. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013:108-114.
  5. Jones SL, Smith BP. Diseases of the alimentary tract. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.; 2015:727.
  6. Layman QD, Rezabek GB, Ramachandran A, Love BC, Confer AW. A retrospective study of equine actinobacillosis cases: 1999-2011.  Journ Vet Diagn Invest. 2014:26(3):365-375.
  7. Lohr CV, Polster U, Kuhnert P, Karger A, Rurangirwa FR, Teifke JP. Mesenteric lymphangitis and sepsis due to RTX toxin-producing Actinobacillus spp in 2 foals with hypothyroidism-dysmaturity syndrome. Vet Pathol. 2011:49(4):592-601.
  8. Patterson-Kane JC, Donahue JM, Harrison LR. Septicemia and peritonitis due to Actinobacillus equuli in an adult horse. Vet Pathol. 2001;38(2):230-232.
  9. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol. 3. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:417-418.
  10. Schumacher LL, Beard LA, Nietfeld JC. Pathology in practice. A equuli J Am Vet Med Assoc.  2015 Feb 15;246(4):415-417.

 

 


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