AFIP SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
April 2019
C-B01 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #1947994):  5-week-old Rhode Island Red chicken

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Heart:  The ventricular and septal walls are diffusely and transmurally thickened 2-4 times normal by large numbers of infiltrating macrophages and few lymphocytes and heterophils that separate and replace cardiac myocytes.  Similar inflammatory cells infiltrate the endocardium and epicardial adipose tissue and multifocally form irregular tags and nodules that protrude from the epicardial surface.  Macrophages often have large vesiculate nuclei and foamy, pale eosinophilic cytoplasm.  Remaining cardiac myocytes are often pale and have a swollen and vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration), or have fragmented sarcoplasm with loss of cross striations and pyknotic nuclei (necrosis).  Multifocally, arteriolar walls are disrupted and replaced by intensely eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin), necrotic debris, and few degenerate inflammatory cells (necrotizing vasculitis). 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Heart:  Pancarditis, histiocytic, diffuse, severe, with necrotizing vasculitis, and myocardial degeneration and necrosis, Rhode Island Red, chicken, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Myocardial salmonellosis

CAUSE:  Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Gallinarum-Pullorum

CONDITION:  Pullorum disease

SYNONYMS:  Bacillary white diarrhea and white diarrhea

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For gross lesions:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES: 

  1. Barrow PA, Freitas Neto OC. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid – new thoughts on old diseases: A review. Avian Pathol. 2011;40(1):1-13.
  2. Batista DF, de Freitas Neto OC, de Almeida AM, et al. Molecular identification of Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum by a duplex PCR assay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016;28(4):419-422.
  3. Chappell L, Kaiser P, Barrow P, Jones MA, Johnston C, Wigley P. The immunobiology of avian systemic salmonellosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;128(1):53-59.
  4. Fulton RM. Salmonellosis. In: Boulianne M, ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th ed. Jacksonville, FL; AAAP Inc.; 2013:122-124.
  5. Lu Y, Chen S, Dong H, Sun H, Peng D, Liu X. Identification of genes responsible for biofilm formation or virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar pullorum. Avian Dis. 2012;56(1):134-143.
  6. Shivaprasad HL, Barrow PA. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. In: Saif YM, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing; 2013:678-693.


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