JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-P01

Signalment (JPC #1925258):  A 2-month-old chicken.

HISTORY:  None.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: D-P01a Cecum:  Circumferentially expanding the lamina propria and infiltrating the mucosal/crypt epithelium are myriad developing coccidial life stages including numerous intracellular macrogamonts and microgamonts, and both intra and extracellular schizonts; and many developing oocysts which comprise the majority of the developing stages.  Macrogamonts are approximately 30 um in diameter with a single, central nucleus and a peripheral ring of 2 um diameter eosinophilic granules; microgamonts are round to oval, approximately 15-20 um in diameter with multiple small 1um basophilic nuclei; schizonts are 40-60 um in diameter with numerous basophilic 4x2um crescentic merozoites.  Oocysts within the cecal crypt lumina and within crypt epithelium are 15-20um diameter, thick walled, oval to irregular, and filled with eosinophilic pale granular material and/or a single eosinophilic central nucleus, and are admixed with a small amount of necrotic debris.  Multifocally, the mucosa is eroded with loss of enterocytes and replacement by hemorrhage, fibrin, eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, and inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, few heterophils).  Expanding the lamina propria and submucosa and multifocally extending into the muscularis and serosa is a moderate cellular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and few heterophils admixed with hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, and scattered colonies of cocci.  The cecum lumen is distended with numerous previously described coccidial life stages, necrotic debris, fibrin, hemorrhage, degenerate inflammatory cells, sloughed enterocytes, and few clusters of cocci and bacilli.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cecum:  Typhlitis, erosive, lymphoplasmacytic, subacute, diffuse, marked, with myriad intra- and extracellular coccidian gamonts, schizonts, and oocysts.

Signalment (JPC #3107701):  Multiple 4 week old broiler chickens.

HISTORY:  Six 4-week-old broilers were submitted for necropsy from a flock of 12,000 birds. There had been a prominent spike in mortality in one of four barns and approximately 250 birds had been lost.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: D-P01b Cecum:  Diffusely and circumferentially, the mucosa is eroded or ulcerated and the mucosal epithelium is lost and replaced by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (lytic necrosis), few lymphocytes, viable and degenerate heterophils, macrophages, fibrin, edema, and previously described schizonts and free merozoites, which are present in abundance.  Remaining crypts are often dilated and contain numerous oocysts, necrotic debris, and fibrin (crypt abscesses), and the crypt epithelium is frequently expanded by previously described intracellular gamonts.  Multifocally, schizonts are present in the the muscularis mucosa, admixed with fibrin, hemorrhage, edema, and previously described inflammatory cells that diffusely extends into and expands the submucosa.  The cecal lumen contains abundant hemorrhage, fibrin and necrotic debris admixed with few oocysts, schizonts, merozoites, numerous 1x4 bacilli, sloughed epithelial cells, few heterophils, and lymphocytes.  Numerous bacterial colonies containing both rods are cocci and present within vessels in the muscularis and submucosa.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Cecum: Typhlitis, necrohemorrhagic, subacute, diffuse, severe,  with numerous intra- and extracellular schizonts, merozoites, gamonts, and oocysts.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cecal coccidiosis (Eimeriosis)

CAUSE:  Eimeria tenella

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Necrotizing typhlitis:

Enteritis:

 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Animal

Coccidia

Organ affected/Clinical signs

 

Birds

   Chickens

 

 

 

  

  

   

  

  

  Turkey

 

 

 

  

 

 

  Geese & ducks

 

   Sandhill/whooping    

      cranes

   Parrots

 

E. acervulina

E. necatrix/maxima

E. brunetti

E. tenella

E. mitis

E. mivati

E. praecox

E. hagani

 

E. dispersa

E. adenoeides

E. meleagrimitis

E. gallopavonis

E. meleagridis

E. innocua

E. subrotunda

E. truncata

E. anseris/nocens

E. reichenowi

E. gruis

E. psittaculae

 

Duodenum/enteritis

Mid-intestine/enteritis

Ileum/enteritis

Ceca/typhlitis

NP

SI/enteritis

Duodenum/enteritis

Watery intestinal contents, catarrhal inflammation

Middle 1/3, +/-  duodenum, cecum

Cecum, ileum

SI (anterior  2/3)

Ileum, LI

NP

NP

NP

Kidney/anorexia, depression

Intestine

Disseminated

 

Intestine

 

Cattle

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Water buffalo calves

E. bovis

E. zuernii

E. ellipsoidalis

E. alabamensis

E. auburnensis

E. bukidnonensis

E. kosti

E. bareillyi

Lower small intestine; HP

Terminal meter of ileum; HP

 

SI; occas. LI

Ileum

 

Abomasal glands

 

Common; diarrhea progresses to dysentery; hemorrhagic or fibrinohemorrhagic typhlocolitis; +/- mucosal ulceration

Sheep

E. ahsata/christenseni

E. bakuensis (ovina)

E. crandallis

E. ovinoidalis

E. granulosa

E. faurei

E. parva

E. intricata

E. pallida

E. caprovina

E. punctata

Lower SI

Lower SI

SI; villus atrophy

Typhlocolitis

Universal; young animals; E. bakuensis and E. ahsata can cause nodular polypoid structures NOT assoc. w/ clinical disease

Goats

E. christenseni

E. arloingi

E. hirci

E. ninakohlyakimovea

E. jolchijevi

E. apsheronica

E. alijevi

E. kochrii

E. weybridgenssis

E. marsica

E. caprina

E. pallida

E. caprovina

E. punctata

Lower SI

Lower SI; occas. LI

SI

Typhlocolitis

 

 

 

 

SI

 

Typhlocolitis

 

Equine

E. leuckarti

Klossiella equi

SI (mainly foals)

 

Swine

E. debliecki

Cystoisospora suis

E. scabra

E. spinosa

SI (in 1-3 week old piglets)

SI, distal 1/3 of villi

Lower SI; most pathogenic

C. suis - Porcine neonatal coccidiosis; fibrinonecrotic enteritis in distal SI; coccidiosis in older swine uncommon

Canine

Cystisospora canis

C. ohioensis

C. burrowsi

C. neorivolta

Distal SI; occas. LI

SI, esp. ileum; LI

SI

SI; rarely cecum, colon

 

Feline

Cystoisospora felis

C. rivolta

SI; occas. LI

SI and LI

 

Mice

E. falciformis

E. vermiformis

E. papillata

E. ferrisi

Klossiella muris

Colon

Intestine

Intestine

Intestine

Kidney

Typhlocolitis in pet and wild mice

Rabbit

E. stiedae

E. intestinalis

E. flavescens

E. media

E. magna

E. piriformis

E. irresidua

E. perforans

E. exigua

E. coecicola (NP)

Bile ducts

Ileum and cecum

Ileum and cecum

Enteritis often accomp. by overgrowth of E. coli and presence of rotavirus

Ferret

E. furonis

SI

 

Przewalski’s Gazelle

E. jiangi

E. cagandzeeri

 

 

HP = highly pathogenic; NP = non-pathogenic

 

REFERENCES

  1. Abdul-Aziz T, Barnes HJ. Avian Histopathology Text and Atlas. Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2018: 154-158.
  2. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 82, 297.
  3. Boulianne M, et al. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: AAAP; 2013:164-167, 248-250.
  4. Cebra CK, Valentine BA, Schlipf JW, et al. Eimeria macusaniensis infection in 15 llamas and 34 alpacas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007; 230(1): 94-100.
  5. Hensel M, Bertram M, Rech R, Hamer G, Hamer S. Survey of gross and histopathologic findings in two wintering subpopulations of Sandhill cranes (Antigone canadensis). J Wildl Dis. 2018; 54(1): 156-160.
  6. Kwon YK, Jeon WJ, Kang MI, Kim JH, Olsen GH. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio). J Wildl Dis. 2006; 42(3): 712-714.
  7. McDougald LR. Protozoal infections. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013: 1148-1166.
  8. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Pathology of Pet and Aviary Birds. 2nd Philadelphia, PA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015: 82.
  9. Sledge DG, Bolin SR, Lim A, Kaloustian LL, Heller RL, Carmona FM, Kiupel M. Outbreaks of severe enteric disease associated with Eimeria furonis infection in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) of 3 densely populated groups. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011; 239(12): 1584-1588.
  10. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 227-235.
  11. Wang Y, Du S, Yang Y, et al. Intestinal parasites in the critically endangered Przewalski’s gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) in China, with the description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). J Wildl Dis. 2016; 52(4): 945-948.

 

ENCLOSURE:

Dipl. Biol. Andreas Weck-Heimann: Life cycle eimeria, http://www.saxonet.de/coccidia/coccid02.htm


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